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Part of the List of dharma_terms from the buddhist_ayurveda Course (skt220 ) on sanskrit_terms of ayurveda and dharma

= Ngondro - Preliminary Practices =

ngondro - preliminary_practice

tibetan_buddhism 'Ngöndro' (Tib., wylie: sngon 'gro,<ref>Dharma Dictionary (2008). Preliminary Practices (sngon 'gro). Source: [http://rywiki.tsadra.org/index.php/Ngondro] (accessed: January 29, 2008)</ref> pronounced “nundro”; known in Sanskrit as pūrvaka<ref>Source: [http://books.google.com.au/books?id=K6cG-Y35YcUC&pg=PA193&lpg=PA193&dq=purvaka&source=bl&ots=b3f5Cb1lgD&sig=83oXx0RqiAcho-l9su6baUVpSUg&hl=en&ei=PrtqS7e-PNCHkAW4pOD4Aw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CB8Q6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=&f=false] (accessed: Thursday February 4, 2010)</ref><ref>Dharma Fellowship (2009). The Way of the Yogi. Source: [http://www.dharmafellowship.org/library/essays/way-of-the-yogi.htm] (accessed: Thursday February 4, 2010)</ref>) refers to the preliminary, preparatory or foundational 'practices' or 'disciplines' (Sanskrit: sadhana) common to all four schools of tibetan_buddhism and also to boen. The Tibetan term ngöndro literally denotes meanings in the range of “something that goes before, something which precedes.”<ref>Rangjung Yeshe Tibetan-English Dictionary of Buddhist Culture. Source [http://www.nitartha.org/dictionary_search04.html] (accessed: June 17, 2008),</ref> The preliminary practices establish the foundation for the more advanced and rarefied vajrayana sadhana which are held to engender realization and the embodiment of enlightenment. In addition to what is generally denoted by the term ngöndro, preparatory practices may also be prescribed for senior and advanced sadhana, eg.: “differentiating saṃsāra and nirvāṇa” (Wylie: 'khor 'das ru shan) is the preparatory practice of kadag_trekchoe.<ref>Pettit, John Whitney (1999). Mipham's Beacon of Certainty: Illuminating the View of Dzogchen, the Great Perfection. Boston: Wisdom Publications (1999). ISBN 0861711572. p.81</ref>.


The use of the practices of vajrasattva, mandala offering and guru_yoga as preliminaries to the practice of anuttarayogatantra sadhanas was well established in india.date=August 2009 In Tibet, the tradition came to include prostration practice and the accumulation of large numbers of each practice.

Outer and inner preliminaries

In general the preliminary practices are divided into two sections or kinds: the first are the common or ordinary kind of preliminary practices, and the second are the special or extraordinary kind of preliminaries.

'Four preliminaries' or 'Four reminders' (Tibetan: thun mong ngon dro nam pa zhi; tun mong gi ngon dro shi)

The [http://www.rinpoche.com/glossary.htm Namo Buddhist Glossary] (undated) renders the “Four preliminaries” as the:

*…four foundations of meditation (Tib. tun mong gi ngon dro shi) These are the four thoughts that turn the mind. They are reflection on precious_human_birth, impermanence and the inevitability of death, karma and its effects, and the pervasiveness of suffering in samsara.<ref>The Namo Buddha Glossary (undated). Four Foundations of Meditation. Source: [http://www.rinpoche.com/glossary.htm](accessed: January 29, 2008)</ref> *…four ordinary foundations (Tib. tün mong gi ngon dro shi) This is meditation on the four thoughts that turn the mind towards dharma which are the precious human birth, impermanence, samsara, and karma.<ref>The Namo Buddha Glossary (undated). Four Ordinary Foundations. Source: [http://www.rinpoche.com/glossary.htm](accessed: January 29, 2008)</ref> *…four thoughts that turn the mind (Tib. blo do nam shi) These are realizing the preciousness of human birth, the impermanence of life, the faults of samsara, and realizing that pleasure and suffering result from good and bad actions.<ref>The Namo Buddha Glossary (undated). Four Thoughts That Turn The Mind. Source: [http://www.rinpoche.com/glossary.htm](accessed: January 29, 2008)</ref>

The common or ordinary preliminaries are often referred to as the “four thoughts which turn the mind towards dharma”.date=January 2008 These consist of contemplations, reflections or meditations on:

the freedoms and advantages of precious human rebirth

the truth of impermanence and change

the workings of karma

the suffering of living beings within samsara

NB: the Four Ordinary Foundations should not be conflated with the satipatthana.

Inner preliminaries

The special or extraordinary kind of preliminaries consist of :

taking of refuge in the three roots in conjunction with the performance of 100,000 prostration (Buddhism)|prostrations]] (purifying pride)<ref>'prostrations' may also be subsumed within sadhana repetitions of various vinyasa forms of yogic discipline, such as trul_khor, eg.</ref><ref>url=http://blog.dwbuk.org/diamond-way-buddhism/lama-gendun-rinpoche-on-[[prostration]]s/|title =Lama Gendun Rinpoche on [[prostration]]s|accessdate =2010-11-07|publisher =Diamond Way Buddhism</ref>

cultivation of bodhichitta (purifying jealousy). In some formulations this is included under 1.

100,000 recitations of vajrasattva's hundred_syllable_mantra (purifying hatred - aversion)

100,000 mandala offerings (purifying attachment)

100,000 guru_yoga practices (purifying delusion)

These practices purify negative deeds and accumulate merit. Traditionally ngöndro practice is done for the enlightenment of the spiritual aspirant and for the benefit of all sentient beings. That is, the merit of doing the practices is dedicated to all sentient beings. These practices can take 1,500 hours of work to accomplish once. Some practitioners do them multiple times. In retreat, that might take six months. Done mixed into daily life it might take years.

Various ngöndros

Ngöndro is an essential practice of all schools of tibetan_buddhism as well as the indigenous Yungdrung Bön tradition. Each of the four_main_schools_of_tibetan_buddhismgelug, kagyu, nyingma and sakya have variations as to the order of the preliminaries, the refuge_trees visualized, the lineage gurus and deities invoked, prayers etc.

Despite these differences all Ngöndro practices have as their goal the enlightenment of the practitioner so that he/she may be of the greatest benefit to all sentient_beings, i.e. the cultivation of “bodhichitta”. While some novices may feel that the Ngöndro are somehow “lesser” than various tantric_practices, they are a complete_path_to_enlightenment in and of themselves. The renowned Lama patrul_rinpoche (1808-1887) is said to have practiced the longchen_nyingthig Ngöndro repeatedly through of his life.

Before receiving advanced tantric practices from a qualified_spiritual_teacher a Ngöndro usually must be completed and fully internalized. Without this foundation, practicing Tantra would be like, “planting a scorched seed, nothing will come of it.”date=January 2008 This was not the case in India or early Tibet, however, as the formalized Ngöndro known today was developed in Tibet.


*nyam_gyud_ngoendro There are actually 2 cycles of Ngöndro in Bön - Zhang Zhung Nyam Gyud and A Khrid. There are some minor differences between the two, however generally the practices are: Opening the Heart meditation_on_impermanence Admitting Misdeeds (repentance bodhichitta refuge mandala_offering Purification Through Mantra Offering the Body guru_yoga ===Gelug=== *lam_rim Ngöndro - sometimes enumerated as having nine rather than five components, with the additional ones being: (6) dorje_khadro (vajra_daka) practice, in which black_sesame_seeds are visualized negativities offered in a fire to the mouth of the fierce deity Dorje Khadro, who consumes them; offering of (7) water_bowls, 8) tsa_tsa (clay or plaster images of the Buddha), and (9) samaya_vajra (damtsig_dorje) mantra. ===Kagyu=== The various subsects of the kagyu lineage tend to practice slightly different ngöndro practices. One of the most common in the karma_kagyu lineage, called the Chariot for Travelling the Path to Freedom, was written by 9th karmapa wangchuk_dorje. In the shambhala_buddhist community, a Primordial rigden Ngöndro written by sakyong_mipham_rinpoche is practiced as a preliminary to various terma-derived practices received by chogyam_trungpa rinpoche. Practitioners later go on to practice the karma_kagyu ngöndro and in some cases one of the nyingma ngöndro practices. There is also a recent english transliteration of Drukpa Kargyud Ngondro written by HH Shakya Rinchen, the 9th Jey Khenpo of Bhutan, titled “ The Chariot of Liberation to the Vajra Abode” with detailed footnote and important commentaries by HH Jey Tenzin Dondup, the 69th Supreme Lord Abbot of Bhutan. ===Nyingma=== *longchen_nyingthig Ngöndro (Wyl. klong chen snying thig) The Longchen Nyingthik (Tib. “Heart Essence of the Vast Expanse”) is a Terma cycle revealed by the master jigme_lingpa. Since its inception in the late 18th century, it has become one of the most widespread sets of teachings in the nyingmapa tradition. It is particularly known and loved for its extensive commentarial_literature (shastra), which includes practice manuals such as the famed Kunzang Lama'i Shelung (“words_of_my_perfect_teacher”). These teachings were originally transmitted by the master padmasambhava to King trisong_deutsen, the dakini yeshe_tsogyal and the lotsawa (“translator”) vairotsana at samye Monastery in central Tibet. As the time for these teachings to spread was not yet right, they were then written in symbolic script by Yeshe Tsogyal, entrusted to the dakinis, and hidden to be revealed at a later time. The king later reincarnated as the terton (“treasure_revealer”) Jigme Lingpa. Then, recognizing the time was ripe for them to be practiced, put them down in writing and began to teach. Jigme Lingpa was a reincarnation of two important masters, vimalamitra<ref>[http://www.rigpawiki.org/index.php?title=Longchen_Nyingtik Longchen Nyingtik] at Rigpawiki</ref> and King Trisong Deutsen.<ref>Approaching the great_perfection Simultaneous and gradual_methods of dzogchen Practice in the Longchen Nyingtig (2003) Van Schaik, Sam, wisdom_publications, ISBN: 0-86171-370-2 p 33</ref> As the embodiment of these two figures, Tibet's two primary Dzogchen lineages were combined in him—the vima_nyingthik and khandro_nyingthik, both of which are contained in the nyingthik_yabshi. Hence, the longchen_nyingthig terma cycle is considered a condensation of these profound teachings. The texts that were revealed by Jigme Lingpa, in their present-day form, comprise three volumes, known as the nyingthig_tsapod (Wylie:snying thig rtsa pod). The numerous treatises (shastra), sadhanas and prayers it contains deal primarily with tantric practice, in particular the 'stages of Development' (generation_stage - Tibetan: kye-rim) and dzogchen. * nam_cho Ngöndro The Nam Cho is the “sky / space treasure” terma as revealed by terton migyur_dorje in the palyul tradition. This Ngöndro practice is known as “Buddha in the Palm of your Hand” (liberation_in_the_palm_of_your_hand) and is preliminary for Dzogchen practice, where one can realize the mind_s_nature. The uncommon preliminaries are: refuge, bodhichitta, mandala_offering, long_mandala_offering, The Kusali chod, vajrasattva, guru_yoga, phowa (transference_of_consciousness), chenrezig Generation in the six_realms. It includes “The Vajra Verses of the Nam Cho Dzogchen.” Terton Migyur Dorje received them from arya avalokiteshvara and guru_rinpoche (padmasambhava) and then transmitted them to Karma Changmed Rinpoche. *Dudjom Tersar Ngöndro *chokling_tersar Ngöndro *koenchok_chidue Ngöndro *rangjung_pema_nyingthig Ngöndro ===Sakya=== *Sakya Ngöndro ==The practice of ngöndros== Like other vajrayana practices, ngöndro was once held in greater secrecy than today. Fifty years ago the only Westerners that would have known about Ngöndro would have been Himalayan seekers such as john_blofeld, heinrich_harrer, and alexandra_david-neel. Today, with the spread of Tibetan Buddhism to the West, there are many practitioners working on different stages of ngöndro at the various Tibetan Buddhist centers in the West, in addition to practitioners at centers and monasteries in tibet, Nepal, Ladakh, india and Bhutan. ==References== 2 ==Further reading== * Blofeld, John. The Tantric mysticism of Tibet. Prajna Press, Boulder, Colorado, 1982 * Chagdud tulku Rinpoche. Ngondro Commentary: Instructions for the Concise Preliminary Practices of the New Treasure of Dudjom. Padma Publishing, Junction City, CA., 1995. * jamgon_kongtrul. (trans. by Judith Hanson). The Torch of Certainty. shambhala_publications, Boston 1994. (This is a classic text by the great 19th century polymath, jamgon_kongtrul the Great, with contemporary commentaries by kalu_rinpoche, deshung_rinpoche, and chogyam_trungpa Rinpoche.) *Kalu Rinpoche. The Foundations of Tibetan Buddhism: The Gem Ornament of Manifold oral_instructions Which Benefits Each and Everyone Appropriately. snow_lion_publications, Ithaca, New York, 1999. *patrul_rinpoche, “words_of_my_perfect_teacher”, translated by the padmakara_translation_group, Shambhala Publications, Boston, 1994 *khenpo Ngawang Pelzang, “A Guide to the Words of My Perfect Teacher” translated by the Padmakara Translation Group, shambhala_publications, Boston, 2004 *dilgo_khytentse Rinpoche, “The Excellent Path to Enlightenment” translated by the Padmakara Translation Group, Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca NY, 1996 *Jigme Lingpa, “Dzogchen - Innermost Essence Preliminary Practice” translated by Tulku Thondup, ISBN 8185102198, 1982/2002 *Third dzogchen_rinpoche, “Great Perfection: Outer and Inner Preliminaries” (Khandro Nyingtik) translated by Cortland Dahl, ISBN 1559392851, 2008, [http://www.snowlionpub.com/html/product_9433.html] * Entrance to the Great Perfection: A Guide to the Dzogchen preliminary Practices, translated by Cortland Dahl, ISBN 978-1-55939-339-3[http://www.snowlionpub.com/html/product_9955.html] ==External links== *[http://www.drukpa.com/index.php/teachings/by-our-dragon-masters/38-gdrukpa/10-ngondro Ngondro Practice] *[http://www.lotsawahouse.org/ngondro.html Lotsawa House] -Ngöndro Series with translations of texts on ngöndro by Patrul Rinpoche, jamyang_khyentse_wangpo and other Tibetan masters. *[http://www.diamondway-teachings.org/export/en/content/shamar/shamar4.html www.diamondway-teachings.org] Teaching on Chagchen Ngondro by Kunzig Shamar Rinpoche. *[http://www.saraswatibhawan.org/dharmafree/Dudjom%20Short%20Ngondro.pdf Dudjom Short Ngondro] *[http://www.namsebangdzo.com/Dzogchen_Innermost_Essence_p/5301.htm Jigme Lingpa - Longchen Nyingthig Ngondro] *[http://palyulproductions.org/html/ngondro_practice.html Migyur Dorje - Nam Cho Ngondro] *[http://www.lotsawahouse.org/dudjom_tersar.html Ngondro Notes] *[http://www.abuddhistlibrary.com/Buddhism/A%20-%20Tibetan%20Buddhism/Authors/Dudjom%20Rinpoche/The%20Dzogchen%20View%20of%20Tantra/Dzogchen%20View%20of%20Tantric%20Ngondro.htm Dzogchen View of Tantric Ngondro] buddhism_topics ngondro tibetan_buddhist_practices ngoendro ngoendro ngondro ngoendro ngoendro nyndro нёндро ньондро http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ng%C3%B6ndro —- List of dharma_terms | Previous Term | Next Term —- Return to the buddhist_ayurveda_encyclopedia and 
glossary_of_dharma and ayurvedic_terms | recent_changes ====== Fair Use Bibliographic Sources ====== fair_use: Primary fair_use Compilation Source: ron_epstein, Ph.D, compiler, buddhism_a_to_z, Burlingame, california, buddhist_text_translation_society, 2003, p. isbn_0881393533 Paperback: 284 pages. http://www.BTTSOnline.org www.Amazon.com http://www.bttsonline.org/product.aspx?pid=118 http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0881393533/ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20 and many other sources (see bibliography). Primary Original Source: The tripitaka of sutra, shastra and vinaya dharma teachings (as found in the scripture storehouse of the indian sanskrit- siddham, chinese, tibetan and japanese traditions of the nalanda_tradition of ancient nalanda_university) of shakyamuni_buddha, and his arya sagely bodhisattva bhikshu monk and upasaka disciples. These good_and_wise_advisors (kaliyanamitra) dharma_master teachers include arya venerables om_tare_tuttare_ture om_ah_hum and namo to jivaka, charaka, lao_zi - mahakashapa, ashwagosha, shantideva - hui_neng - shen_kai sheng_ren_shr, bodhidharma, the 16 nalanda_acharyas 1. nagarjuna-manjushri, 2. arydeva, 3. buddhapalita, 4. bhavaviveka, 5. chandrakirti and chandragomin, 6. shantideva, 7. shantarakshita, 8. kamalashila, 9. asanga-maitreya, 10. vasubhandu, 11. dignaga, 12. dharmakirti, 13. vimuktisena, 14. haribhadra, 15. gunaprabha, 16. shakyaprabha; dharmarakshita, atisha, tsong_khapa, thogme_zangpo, nyingma padmasambhava, yeshe_tsogyel, machig_lapdron, tilopa, naropa, milarepa, langri_tangpa, sakya_pandita, kumarajiva, xuan_zang, baozhi, hui_yuan, daosheng, changzhi, fazang, han_shan, shi_de, yunmen, nichiren, honen, shinran, kukai, dogen, hakuin, jamgon_kongtrul, nyingma penor_rinpoche, bakula_rinpoche, dagri_rinpoche, kirti_tsenshab_rinpoche, geshe_lama_kongchog, longchen_rapjampa - gosok_rinpoche, phabongkha_rinpoche, patrul_rinpoche, tenzin_gyatso the dalai_lama, sakya_trizin, hsu_yun, hsuan_hua, lama_zopa_rinpoche, choden_rinpoche, garchen_rinpoche, karmapa, mingyur_rinpoche, geshe_ngwang_dakpa, geshe_sopa_rinpoche, seung_sahn, thich_nhat_hanh, ajahn_chah, ajahn_sumedho, s._n._goenka, mama_ayur_punya_jyana_pushtim_kuriye_svaha, making offerings and b_bowing at your feet I make requests. Please bestow on me the two_attainments of maha punya and maha prajna_paramita. And om_ah_hum thanks to other modern_day_masters. We consider them to be in accord with tripitaka_master hsuan_hua’s “seven_guidelines_for_recognizing_genuine_teachersnalanda_online_university's teachings are based especially on the following buddhist_scriptures: lama tsong_khapa's lam_rim, the Dharma Flower lotus_sutra, the avatamsaka_sutra, the shurangama_sutra, the ksitigarbha_sutra, the bhaisajya_guru_sutra, the dharani_sutra, the vajra_sutra, the prajna_paramita Hridayam heart_sutra, the vimalakirti_sutra, the sanghata_sutra, the sutra_of_golden_light, the srimala_devi_sutra, the sutra_in_42_sections, the mahaparinirvana_sutra, the hui_neng_sutra, vasubandhu's shastra_on_the_door_to_understanding_the_hundred_dharmas, Maitreya's ornament_for_clear_realizations (abhisamayalamkara), chandrakirti's supplement_to_nagarjuna_s_treatise_on_the_middle_way (madhyamakavatara), vasubandhu's treasury_of_manifest_knowledge (abhidharmakosha), eight_verses_of_training_the_mind (logong), and the tantras and mantras of the vajrayana the 42_hands_and_eyes, guhyasamaja, the kalachakra, the vajrayogini, the heruka, the chakrasamvara, the chod, the hayagriva, the hevajra, the yamantaka, the kalarupa, the manjushri_nama_samgiti, the vajrakilaya, the vajrapani, the vajra_claws_dakini, the mahakala, the tara, the white_umbrella_goddess (she_dan_do_bo_da_la), kirti_losang_trinle's grounds_and_paths_of_secret_mantra, and aku_sherab_gyatso's the_two_stages_of_the_guhyasamaja_tantra and their commentaries (shastras) by the above Arya tripitakacharya dharma_masters. Making offerings and bowing at your feet I make requests. Please bestow on me the two_attainments of maha punya and maha prajna_paramita. Secondary fair_use Compilation Source: The seeker_s_glossary_of_buddhism, 2nd ed., San Francisco, California: Sutra Translation Committee of the United States and Canada, 1998: http://www.budaedu.org.tw Secondary fair_use Compilation Source: Muller, Charles, editor, digital_dictionary_of_buddhism [DDB], Toyo Gakuen University, Japan, 2007: Username is “guest”, with no password. http://buddhism-dict.net/ddb - Based in large part on the dictionary_of_chinese_buddhist_terms with Sanskrit and English Equivalents (by soothill and Hodous) Delhi, India: motilal_banarsidass, 1997. Secondary fair_use Compilation Source: Ehrhard, Diener, Fischer, et al, The shambhala_dictionary_of_buddhism_and_zen, Boston, Massachusetts: shambhala_publications, 1991. 296 pages. ISBN 978-0-87773-520-5 http://www.Shambhala.com, http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877735204/ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20, http://www.shambhala.com/html/catalog/items/isbn/978-0-87773-520-5.cfm Secondary fair_use Compilation Source: vaidya vasant_lad, textbook_of_ayurveda, ayurvedic_press, 2002; vasant_lad, bams, masc, ayurvedic_institute_gurukula_notes, ayurvedic_institute, 1994-2006; —- NOTE: Numerous corrections and enhancements have been made under shastra_tradition and “fair_use” by an anonymous buddhist_monk redactor (Compiler) of this Online buddhist_encyclopedia Compilation) —- —- ====== Course Codes ====== course_codes for the buddhist_ayurveda ayurvedic_distance_learning Program are as follows: ayr108 | hrb108 | cln301 | hum108 | his108 | yog108 | nut108 | ayr190 | ayr220 | ayr230 | ayr240 | ayr241 | ayr250 | ayr260 | skt108 | skt210 |skt220 | sut310 —- ====== Technical Notes ====== See the technical_notes please. ====== Contact Us ====== ayurveda_healing_arts_institute of medicine_buddha_healing_center San Francisco Bay Area: 1-510-292-6696 ====== About Medicine Buddha Healing Center ====== about_us: clinic and ayurveda_healing_arts_institute of medicine_buddha_healing_center • The most comprehensive Clinical multimedia audio and video-based Buddhist Ayurvedic Distance Learning Program on the Planet — from introductory 225-Hour clinical_ayurveda_therapist (CAT) to most advanced 3200-Hour doctorate_of_ayurveda (PhD). 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