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Part of the List of Dharma Terms from the Buddhist Ayurveda Course (SKT220 ) on Sanskrit Terms of Ayurveda and Dharma

Longchen Rapjampa

Longchen Rapjampa, see also Gosok Rinpoche

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Longchenpa or Longchen Rabjampa (1308<ref name=“practice”>

</ref> &ndash; 1363<ref name=“practice”/> or possibly 1369) was a major teacher in the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism. Along with Sakya Pandita and Je Tsongkhapa, he is commonly recognized as one of the three main manifestations of Manjushri to have taught in Central Tibet. His major work is the Seven Treasures,<ref>The Dzogchen Lineage of Nyoshul Khenpo</ref> which encapsulates the previous 600 years of Buddhist thought in Tibet. Longchenpa was a critical link in the exoteric and esoteric transmission of the Dzogchen teachings. He was abbot of Samye, one of Tibet's most important monasteries and the first Buddhist monastery established in the Himalaya, but spent most of his life travelling or in retreat.

David Germano, in his doctoral thesis on the Tsigdön Dzö (tshigs don mdzod) (one of the Seven Treasuries),<ref name=“germano”>Germano, David Francis (1992). "Poetic thought, the intelligent Universe, and the mystery of self: The Tantric synthesis of ''rDzogs Chen'' in fourteenth century Tibet." The University of Wisconsin, Madison. Doctoral thesis.] (accessed: Friday December 18, 2009)</ref> frames the brilliance of Longchenpa within the wider discourse of the Dzogchen tradition (found in the Bonpo Zhangzhung and Indo-Tibetan traditions of Buddhism):

Nomenclature, orthography and etymology

Apart from Longchenpa's names given below, he is sometimes referred to by the honorary title “Second Buddha” (Tib. rgyal ba gnyis), a term usually reserved for Guru Padmasambhava and indicative of the high regard in which he and his teachings are held. Like the Third Karmapa Rangjung Dorje, Rongzompa and Jigme Lingpa, he carried the title “Kunkhyen” (Tibetan; “All-Knowing”).

Various forms and spellings of Longchenpa's full name(s), in which 'Longchen' means “Great Expanse”, “Vast Space”, or “Immense Knowledge”:

:* Longchen Rabjam (klong chen rab 'byams; realization of vast knowledge) :* Longchen Rabjampa (klong chen rab 'byams pa) :* Longchenpa Drimey Özer (klong chen pa dri med 'od zer) :* Künkhyen Longchenpa (kun mkhyen klong chen pa; the omniscient Longchenpa) :* Künkhyen Longchen Rabjam (kun mkhyen klong chen rab 'byams) :* Künkhyen Chenpo (kun mkhyen chen po; Omniscient Great One) :* Künkhyen Chenpo Drimey Özer (kun mkhyen chen po dri med 'od zer) :* Künkhyen Chökyi (kun mkhyen chos kyi rgyal po; All-knowing Dharma King) :* Gyalwa Longchen Rabjam (rgyal ba klong chen rab 'byams) :* Gyalwa Longchen Rabjam Drimey Özer (rgyal ba klong chen rab 'byams dri med 'od zer)


A reincarnation of Pema Ledrel Tsal, as such Longchenpa is regarded as an indirect incarnation of the princess Pema Sal.<ref name=“practice”/> He was born to master Tenpasung,<ref name=“practice”/> an adept at both the sciences and the practice of mantra, and Dromza Sonamgyen, who was descended from the family of Dromton Gyelwie Jungne. Legend states that at age five, Longchenpa could read and write<ref name=“practice”/> and by age seven his father began instructing him in Nyingma tantras.<ref name=“practice”/> Longchenpa was first ordained at the age of twelve<ref name=“practice”/> and studied extensively with the Third Karmapa, Rangjung Dorje.<ref name=“practice”/> He received not only the Nyingma transmissions as passed down in his family,<ref name=“practice”/> but also studied with many of the great teachers of his day without regard to sect. He thus received the combined Kadam and Sakya teachings of the Sutrayana through his main Sakya teacher, Palden Lama Dampa Sonam Gyaltsen, in addition to the corpus of both old and new translation tantras. At the age of nineteen, Longchenpa entered the famous shedra (monastic college) Sangpu Neutok (Wylie: gSang-phu Ne'u-thog),<ref name=“practice”/> where he acquired great scholarly wisdom. He later chose to practice in the solitude of the mountains, after becoming disgusted by the unpleasant behavior of certain scholars.

When he was in his late twenties two events occurred that were to be of decisive importance in his intellectual and spiritual development. One was a vision of Guru Padmasambhava and his consort Yeshe Tsogyal. The other happened in his twenty-ninth year, his meeting with the great mystic Rigdzin Kumaradza (alt. Kumaraja) from whom he received the Dzogchen empowerment and teachings in the mountains, the uplands of Yartökyam at Samye where he was traveling from valley to valley with his students under the most difficult of circumstances. Dudjom (1904–1987) et al. (1991: p.&nbsp;579) hold that just prior to the arrival of Longchenpa, Kumaraja relates to his disciples:


Kumaraja accepted no outer tribute from Longchenpa for the teachings he received as Kumararaja through his supernormal cognitive powers discerned that Longchenpa was blameless and had offered his tribute internally.<ref name=“nyingma”/>

Together with Rangjung Dorje, Longchenpa accompanied Kumaraja and his disciples for two years, during which time he received all of Rigdzin Kumaradza's transmissions. Through the efforts of these three, the diverse streams of the “Innermost Essence” (nying thig) teachings of Dzogchen were brought together and codified into one of the common grounds between the Nyingma and Karma Kagyud traditions.

After several years in retreat, Lonchenpa attracted more and more students, even though he had spent nearly all of his life in mountain caves. During a stay in Bhutan (Tib., Mon), Longchenpa fathered a daughter and a son, of which the latter, Trugpa Odzer (b. 1356), also became a holder of the Nyingtig lineage. A detailed account of the life and teachings of Longchenpa is found in Buddha Mind by Tulku Thondup Rinpoche<ref>

</ref> and in A Marvelous Garland of Rare Gems by Nyoshul Khenpo.<ref>


Pema Lingpa the famous terton (finder of sacred texts) of Bhutan is regarded as the immediate reincarnation of Longchenpa.


Longchenpa is widely considered the single most important writer on the Dzogchen teachings. He is credited with more than 250 works, both as author and compiler, among which are the famous Seven Treasures (mdzod bdun), the Trilogy of Natural Freedom (rang grol skor gsum), the Trilogy of Natural Ease (ngal gso skor gsum), his Trilogy of Dispelling Darkness, and his compilation - plus commentaries - of the Nyingtig Yabshi. He is also a commentator of the Kunyed Gyalpo Tantra (Tib., kun byed rgyal po'i rgyud; “The King Who Creates Everything”), a text belonging to the Mind Class (Tib., sems sde) of the Ati Yoga Inner Tantras. As scholar Jacob Dalton summarizes,

Longchenpa combined the teachings of the Vima Nyingtig lineage with those of the Khandro Nyingtig, thus preparing the ground for the fully unified system of teachings that became known as the Longchen Nyingthig (by Jigme Lingpa).

Longchenpa first lived as a free yogi, until he realized the enlightenment. He then worked as a spiritual master and developed the doctrine of the three great satisfactions. It is good to live as a yogi and quick come to enlightenment. It's good to be an enlightened master, because you can help spiritually many people. And it is well to die enlightened, because then you live forever in the light (Nirvana).

Translations in English

  • Dowman, Keith, Old Man Basking In the Sun: Longchenpa's Treasury of Natural Perfection, Vajra Publications, 2006
  • Guenther, H.V., Kindly Bent to Ease Us [trans. of The Trilogy of Finding Comfort and Ease (Ngal-gso-skor-gsum)], vols. 1-3, Dharma Publishing, 1975-6
  • Guenther, H.V. and the Yeshe De Translation Group, Now That I Come to Die [trans. of the parting injunctions (zhal-chems gnad-kyi me-long)], Dharma Publishing, 2007
  • Klong-chen rab-'byams-pa, Looking Deeper: A Swan's Questions and Answers, translated by Herbert V. Guenther, Timeless Books, 1983
  • Rabjam, Longchen (Longchenpa) (2000). You Are the Eyes of the World. (trans of kun byed rgyal po by Kennard Lipman & Merrill Peterson and with an introduction by Namkhai Norbu). Snow Lion Publications; Revised Edition. ISBN 1559391405; ISBN 978-1559391405
  • Longchen Rabjampa, The Four-Themed Precious Garland: An Introduction to Dzogchen, with commentaries by Dudjom Rinpoche and Beru Khyentse Rinpoche; translated by Alexander Berzin, LTWA, 1978
  • Longchen Rabjam (author), Richard Barron (trans): The Precious Treasury of the Basic Space of Phenomena (Chöying Dzöd). Padma Publishing
  • Longchen Rabjam (author), Richard Barron (trans): A Treasure Trove of Scriptural Transmission: A Commentary on the Precious Treasury of the Basic Space of Phenomena. Padma Publishing (2001) ISBN 1881847306
  • Longchen Rabjam (author), Richard Barron (trans): Precious Treasury of the Way of Abiding. Padma Publishing (1998) ISBN 1881847098
  • Longchen Rabjam (author), Richard Barron (trans): The Precious Treasury of Philosophical Systems (Drupta Dzöd): Padma Publishing (2008) ISBN 1881847446
  • Longchen Rabjam (author), Richard Barron (trans): The Precious Treasury of Pith Instructions (Man-ngak Dzöd): Padma Publishing (2007). ISBN 188184742X
  • Longchen Rabjam, The Practice of Dzogchen, translated by Tulku Thondup, Snow Lion, 2002


  • Dzogchen Project Extensive bibliography with information regarding available translations
  • Lotsawa House - Featuring translations of several texts by Longchenpa.

1308 births 1360s deaths Buddhist philosophers Lamas Nyingma Tulkus

Longchen Rabjam Longchenpa Longczenpa Лонгченпа 龍欽巴

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Fair Use Bibliographic Sources

Fair Use: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longchen_Rabjam Primary Fair Use Compilation Source: Ron Epstein, Ph.D, compiler, Buddhism A to Z, Burlingame, California, Buddhist Text Translation Society, 2003, p. ISBN 0881393533 Paperback: 284 pages. http://www.BTTSOnline.org www.Amazon.com http://www.bttsonline.org/product.aspx?pid=118 http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0881393533/ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20 and many other sources (see Bibliography).

Primary Original Source: The Tripitaka of Sutra, Shastra and Vinaya Dharma teachings (as found in the scripture storehouse of the Indian Sanskrit- Siddham, Chinese, Tibetan and Japanese traditions of the Nalanda Tradition of ancient Nalanda University) of Shakyamuni Buddha, and his Arya Sagely Bodhisattva Bhikshu Monk and Upasaka disciples.

These Good and Wise Advisors (Kaliyanamitra) Dharma Master teachers include Arya Venerables Om Tare Tuttare Ture Om Ah Hum and Namo to Jivaka, Charaka, Lao Zi - Mahakashapa, Ashwagosha, Shantideva - Hui Neng - Shen Kai Sheng Ren Shr, Bodhidharma, the 16 Nalanda Acharyas 1. Nagarjuna-Manjushri, 2. Arydeva, 3. Buddhapalita, 4. Bhavaviveka, 5. Chandrakirti and Chandragomin, 6. Shantideva, 7. Shantarakshita, 8. Kamalashila, 9. Asanga-Maitreya, 10. Vasubhandu, 11. Dignaga, 12. Dharmakirti, 13. Vimuktisena, 14. Haribhadra, 15. Gunaprabha, 16. Shakyaprabha; Dharmarakshita, Atisha, Tsong Khapa, Thogme Zangpo, Nyingma Padmasambhava, Yeshe Tsogyel, Machig Lapdron, Tilopa, Naropa, Milarepa, Sakya Pandita, Kumarajiva, Xuan Zang, Baozhi, Hui Yuan, Daosheng, Changzhi, Fazang, Han Shan, Shi De, Yunmen, Nichiren, Honen, Shinran, Kukai, Dogen, Hakuin, Jamgon Kongtrul, Nyingma Penor Rinpoche, Bakula Rinpoche, Dagri Rinpoche, Kirti Tsenshab Rinpoche, Geshe Lama Kongchog, Longchen Rapjampa - Gosok Rinpoche, Phabongkha Rinpoche, Patrul Rinpoche, Tenzin Gyatso the Dalai Lama, Sakya Trizin, Hsu Yun, Hsuan Hua, Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Choden Rinpoche, Garchen Rinpoche, Karmapa, Mingyur Rinpoche, Geshe Ngwang Dakpa, Geshe Sopa Rinpoche, Seung Sahn, Thich Nhat Hanh, Ajahn Chah, Ajahn Sumedho, S. N. Goenka, Mama Ayur Punya Jyana Pushtim Kuriye Svaha, making offerings and b [[bowing at your feet I make requests. Please bestow on me the two attainments of Maha Punya and Maha Prajna Paramita. And Om Ah Hum thanks to other modern day masters. We consider them to be in accord with Tripitaka Master Hsuan Hua’s “Seven Guidelines for Recognizing Genuine Teachers

Nalanda Online University's teachings are based especially on the following Buddhist Scriptures: Lama Tsong Khapa's Lam Rim, the Dharma Flower Lotus Sutra, the Avatamsaka Sutra, the Shurangama Sutra, the Ksitigarbha Sutra, the Bhaisajya Guru Sutra, the Dharani Sutra, the Vajra Sutra, the Prajna Paramita Hridayam Heart Sutra, the Vimalakirti Sutra, the Sanghata Sutra, the Sutra of Golden Light, the Srimala Devi Sutra, the Sutra in 42 Sections, the Mahaparinirvana Sutra, the Hui Neng Sutra, Vasubandhu's Shastra on the Door to Understanding the Hundred Dharmas, Maitreya's Ornament for Clear Realizations (Abhisamayalamkara), Chandrakirti's Supplement to Nagarjuna’s Treatise on the Middle Way (Madhyamakavatara), Vasubandhu's Treasury of Manifest Knowledge (Abhidharmakosha) and the Tantras and Mantras of the Vajrayana the 42 Hands and Eyes, Guhyasamaja, the Kalachakra, the Vajrayogini, the Heruka, the Chakrasamvara, the Chod, the Hayagriva, the Hevajra, the Yamantaka, the Kalarupa, the Manjushri Nama Samgiti, the Vajrakilaya, the Vajrapani, the Vajra Claws Dakini, the Mahakala, the Tara, the White Umbrella Goddess (She Dan Do Bo Da La), Kirti Losang Trinle's Grounds and Paths of Secret Mantra, and Aku Sherab Gyatso's The Two Stages of the Guhyasamaja Tantra and their commentaries (shastras) by the above Arya Tripitakacharya Dharma Masters. Making offerings and bowing at your feet I make requests. Please bestow on me the two attainments of Maha Punya and Maha Prajna Paramita.

Secondary Fair Use Compilation Source: The Seeker’s Glossary of Buddhism, 2nd ed., San Francisco, California: Sutra Translation Committee of the United States and Canada, 1998: http://www.budaedu.org.tw

Secondary Fair Use Compilation Source: Muller, Charles, editor, Digital Dictionary of Buddhism [DDB], Toyo Gakuen University, Japan, 2007: Username is “guest”, with no password. http://buddhism-dict.net/ddb - Based in large part on the Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms with Sanskrit and English Equivalents (by Soothill and Hodous) Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass, 1997.

Secondary Fair Use Compilation Source: Ehrhard, Diener, Fischer, et al, The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen, Boston, Massachusetts: Shambhala Publications, 1991. 296 pages. ISBN 978-0-87773-520-5 http://www.Shambhala.com, http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877735204/ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20, http://www.shambhala.com/html/catalog/items/isbn/978-0-87773-520-5.cfm Secondary Fair Use Compilation Source: Vaidya Vasant Lad, Textbook of Ayurveda, Ayurvedic Press, 2002; Vasant Lad, BAMS, MAsc, Ayurvedic Institute Gurukula Notes, Ayurvedic Institute, 1994-2006;

NOTE: Numerous corrections and enhancements have been made under Shastra tradition and “Fair Use” by an Anonymous Buddhist Monk Redactor (Compiler) of this Online Buddhist Encyclopedia Compilation)

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longchen_rapjampa.txt · Last modified: 2016/02/01 07:50 (external edit)