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= Longchen Rapjampa =

longchen_rapjampa, see also gosok_rinpoche

thumb|right|280px|Longchenpa in his meditation seatt=ཀློང་ཆེན་པ་|w=klong chen rab ’byams pa|ipa={{IPA-bo|lɔŋtɕʰẽpa||z=Longqên Rabjamba (Longqênba)|thdl=Longchen Rapchampa (Longchenpa)|e=—|tc=隆欽然絳巴|s=隆钦然绛巴|p=Lóngqīn Ránjiàngbā}} tibetan_buddhism

'Longchenpa' or 'Longchen Rabjampa' (1308<ref name=“practice”>author=Longchen Rabjam |coauthors=Tulku Thondup |title=The Practice of Dzogchen |year=1996 |publisher=[[Snow Lion Publications]] |quote= | pages=145–188| url= |isbn=1559390549 </ref> &ndash; 1363<ref name=“practice”/> or possibly 1369) was a major teacher in the nyingma school of tibetan_buddhism. Along with sakya_pandita and Je tsongkhapa, he is commonly recognized as one of the three main manifestations of manjushri to have taught in Central tibet. His major work is the Seven Treasures,<ref>[http://www.dzogchen.org/library/bios/dzogchen-lineage.htm The Dzogchen Lineage of Nyoshul Khenpo]</ref> which encapsulates the previous 600 years of Buddhist thought in tibet. Longchenpa was a critical link in the exoteric and esoteric_transmission of the dzogchen teachings. He was abbot of samye, one of tibet's most important monasteries and the first Buddhist monastery established in the himalaya, but spent most of his life travelling or in retreat.

David Germano, in his doctoral thesis on the tsigdoen_dzoe_tshigs_don_mdzod (one of the seven_treasuries),<ref name=“germano”>Germano, David Francis (1992). [http://vajrayana.faithweb.com/Poetic%20thought%20-%20The%20Tantric%20synthesis%20of%20Dzogs%20Chen.pdf “Poetic thought, the intelligent Universe, and the mystery of self: The Tantric synthesis of rDzogs Chen in fourteenth century Tibet.”] The University of Wisconsin, Madison. Doctoral thesis.] (accessed: Friday December 18, 2009)</ref> frames the brilliance of Longchenpa within the wider discourse of the Dzogchen tradition (found in the bonpo zhangzhung and Indo-Tibetan traditions of Buddhism):

"Although at least five hundred years (800 CE - 1300 CE) of thought, contemplation and composition in this tradition (which may not have been a clearly self-conscious tradition in the beginning) preceded him such that all the major themes, structures, and terminology were in place prior to his birth (above all in the canonical [[Seventeen tantras|Seventeen Tantras]] of the Great Perfection (rgyud bcu bdun)), it was Longchenpa (1308-1363) who systematically refined the terminology used by the tradition with a series of subtle yet clear distinctions; brilliantly revealed its relationships with mainstream exoteric Buddhist thought; clarified its internal structure; created from it masterpieces of poetic philosophy remarkable for their aesthetic beauty, philosophical rigor, and overall clarity; and overall pinpointed the inner quintessence of the tradition with writings that not only systematized every major topic, but also creatively explained each to render crystal clear the unprecedented revolution in the content, form, and structure of "philosophical" thought in Indo-Tibetan Buddhism that the Great Perfection teachings entail."<ref name="germano"/><ref>''[[Caveat lector]]'': This is a worked quotation: the [[Christocentric]] "[[AD]]" was iterated to the inclusive non-partisan "[[Common Era|CE]]"; the hybridized non-standard development of the former scholastic standard [[Wylie transcription]] system capitalizing enunciated [[syllable]]s/[[phoneme]]s and backgrounding non-vocalized etymological roots as lowercase text employed by Germano was iterated to the Extended Wylie Transcription System (EWTS) favoured by Wikipedia and English [[Peer review|peer-review]] literature; and metatext/hypertext embellishment and augmentation maximizing the interactive digital medium from the print media source was employed in contravention of Wikipedia guidelines that favour replication of a direct quotation with [[:wikt:felicity|felicity]].</ref>

Nomenclature, orthography and etymology

Apart from Longchenpa's names given below, he is sometimes referred to by the honorary title “Second Buddha” (Tib. rgyal ba gnyis), a term usually reserved for guru padmasambhava and indicative of the high regard in which he and his teachings are held. Like the Third karmapa rangjung_dorje, rongzompa and jigme_lingpa, he carried the title “Kunkhyen” (Tibetan; “All-Knowing”).

Various forms and spellings of Longchenpa's full name(s), in which 'Longchen' means “Great Expanse”, “Vast Space”, or “Immense Knowledge”:

:* Longchen Rabjam (klong chen rab 'byams; realization of vast knowledge) :* Longchen Rabjampa (klong chen rab 'byams pa) :* Longchenpa Drimey Özer (klong chen pa dri med 'od zer) :* Künkhyen Longchenpa (kun mkhyen klong chen pa; the omniscient Longchenpa) :* Künkhyen Longchen Rabjam (kun mkhyen klong chen rab 'byams) :* Künkhyen Chenpo (kun mkhyen chen po; Omniscient Great One) :* Künkhyen Chenpo Drimey Özer (kun mkhyen chen po dri med 'od zer) :* Künkhyen Chökyi (kun mkhyen chos kyi rgyal po; All-knowing Dharma King) :* Gyalwa Longchen Rabjam (rgyal ba klong chen rab 'byams) :* Gyalwa Longchen Rabjam Drimey Özer (rgyal ba klong chen rab 'byams dri med 'od zer)


A reincarnation of pema_ledrel_tsal, as such Longchenpa is regarded as an indirect incarnation of the princess pema_sal.<ref name=“practice”/> He was born to master tenpasung,<ref name=“practice”/> an adept at both the sciences and the practice of mantra, and dromza_sonamgyen, who was descended from the family of dromton_gyelwie_jungne. Legend states that at age five, Longchenpa could read and write<ref name=“practice”/> and by age seven his father began instructing him in Nyingma tantras.<ref name=“practice”/> Longchenpa was first ordained at the age of twelve<ref name=“practice”/> and studied extensively with the Third karmapa, rangjung_dorje.<ref name=“practice”/> He received not only the nyingma transmissions as passed down in his family,<ref name=“practice”/> but also studied with many of the great teachers of his day without regard to sect. He thus received the combined kadam and sakya teachings of the sutrayana through his main sakya teacher, palden_lama_dampa_sonam_gyaltsen, in addition to the corpus of both old and new translation tantras. At the age of nineteen, Longchenpa entered the famous shedra (monastic college) sangpu_neutok (Wylie: gSang-phu Ne'u-thog),<ref name=“practice”/> where he acquired great scholarly wisdom. He later chose to practice in the solitude of the mountains, after becoming disgusted by the unpleasant behavior of certain scholars.

When he was in his late twenties two events occurred that were to be of decisive importance in his intellectual and spiritual development. One was a vision of Guru Padmasambhava and his consort yeshe_tsogyal. The other happened in his twenty-ninth year, his meeting with the great mystic rigdzin_kumaradza (alt. kumaraja) from whom he received the Dzogchen empowerment and teachings in the mountains, the uplands of Yartökyam at samye where he was traveling from valley to valley with his students under the most difficult of circumstances. dudjom (1904–1987) et al. (1991: p.&nbsp;579) hold that just prior to the arrival of Longchenpa, Kumaraja relates to his disciples:

"Last night I dreamt that a wonderful bird, which announced itself to be a divine bird, came with a large flock in attendance, and carried away my books in all directions. Therefore, someone will come to hold my lineage."<ref name="nyingma">{{cite book |author=[[Dudjom Rinpoche]] |coauthors=Jikdrel Yeshe Dorje |title=The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: its Fundamentals and History |year=1991 |publisher=[[Wisdom Publications]] |quote= |pages=579 | url= |isbn=0-86171-087-8</ref>}}

Kumaraja accepted no outer tribute from Longchenpa for the teachings he received as Kumararaja through his supernormal cognitive powers discerned that Longchenpa was blameless and had offered his tribute internally.<ref name=“nyingma”/>

Together with rangjung_dorje, Longchenpa accompanied Kumaraja and his disciples for two years, during which time he received all of Rigdzin Kumaradza's transmissions. Through the efforts of these three, the diverse streams of the “Innermost Essence” (nying thig) teachings of dzogchen were brought together and codified into one of the common grounds between the nyingma and karma_kagyud traditions.

After several years in retreat, Lonchenpa attracted more and more students, even though he had spent nearly all of his life in mountain caves. During a stay in bhutan (Tib., Mon), Longchenpa fathered a daughter and a son, of which the latter, trugpa_odzer (b. 1356), also became a holder of the nyingtig_lineage. A detailed account of the life and teachings of Longchenpa is found in Buddha Mind by tulku thondup_rinpoche<ref>author=Thondup Rinpoche |coauthors= |title=Buddha Mind: An Anthology of Longchen Rabjam's Writings on Dzogpa Chenpo |year=1989 |publisher=[[Snow Lion Publications]] |quote= | url= |isbn=0937938831 </ref> and in A Marvelous Garland of Rare Gems by Nyoshul Khenpo.<ref>author=[[Nyoshul Khenpo Rinpoche]] |coauthors= |title=A Marvelous Garland of Rare Gems: Biographies of Masters of Awareness in the Dzogchen Lineage (A Spiritual History of the Teachings of Natural Great Perfection) |year=2005 |publisher=Padma Publishing |quote= | url= |isbn=1881847411 </ref>

pema_lingpa the famous terton (finder of sacred texts) of Bhutan is regarded as the immediate reincarnation of Longchenpa.


Longchenpa is widely considered the single most important writer on the dzogchen teachings. He is credited with more than 250 works, both as author and compiler, among which are the famous Seven Treasures (mdzod bdun), the trilogy_of_natural_freedom (rang grol skor gsum), the trilogy_of_natural_ease (ngal gso skor gsum), his trilogy_of_dispelling_darkness, and his compilation - plus commentaries - of the nyingtig_yabshi. He is also a commentator of the kunyed_gyalpo_tantra (Tib., kun byed rgyal po'i rgyud; “The King Who Creates Everything”), a text belonging to the mind_class (Tib., sems sde) of the ati_yoga inner_tantras. As scholar Jacob Dalton summarizes,

His foremost writings were gathered into several collections: The ''Mdzod bdun'' (Seven Treasuries) are his most famous works, presenting the whole of Buddhist thought from a snying thig viewpoint; the ''Ngal gso skor gsu''m (Resting at Ease Trilogy) and the ''Rang grol skor gsum'' (Natural Freedom Trilogy) provide in-depth introductions to ''Rdzogs chen''; the ''Mun sel skor gsum'' (Dispelling the Darkness Trilogy) are three commentaries on the [[Guhyagarbha Tantra]]; and the ''Snying thig ya bzhi'' (Seminal Quintessence in Four Parts) is a redaction of his three ''snying thig'' commentaries together with their predecessors, the ''Vima snying thig'' and the ''Mkha’ ’gro snying thig''.<ref>Dalton, Jacob. "Klong chen pa (Longchenpa)." ''Encyclopedia of Buddhism Vol II''. Edited by Robert Buswell. pg 425</ref>

Longchenpa combined the teachings of the vima_nyingtig lineage with those of the khandro_nyingtig, thus preparing the ground for the fully unified system of teachings that became known as the longchen_nyingthig (by jigme_lingpa).

Longchenpa first lived as a free yogi, until he realized the enlightenment. He then worked as a spiritual master and developed the doctrine of the three great satisfactions. It is good to live as a yogi and quick come to enlightenment. It's good to be an enlightened master, because you can help spiritually many people. And it is well to die enlightened, because then you live forever in the light (nirvana).

Translations in English

*Dowman, Keith, Old Man Basking In the Sun: Longchenpa's Treasury of Natural Perfection, Vajra Publications, 2006 *Guenther, H.V., Kindly Bent to Ease Us [trans. of The Trilogy of Finding Comfort and Ease (Ngal-gso-skor-gsum)], vols. 1-3, Dharma Publishing, 1975-6 *Guenther, H.V. and the Yeshe De Translation Group, Now That I Come to Die [trans. of the parting injunctions (zhal-chems gnad-kyi me-long)], Dharma Publishing, 2007 *Klong-chen rab-'byams-pa, Looking Deeper: A Swan's Questions and Answers, translated by herbert_v._guenther, Timeless Books, 1983 *Rabjam, Longchen (Longchenpa) (2000). You Are the Eyes of the World. (trans of kun_byed_rgyal_po by Kennard Lipman & Merrill Peterson and with an introduction by namkhai_norbu). Snow Lion Publications; Revised Edition. ISBN 1559391405; ISBN 978-1559391405 *Longchen Rabjampa, 'The Four-Themed Precious Garland: An Introduction to Dzogchen, with commentaries by Dudjom Rinpoche and beru_khyentse_rinpoche; translated by Alexander Berzin, LTWA, 1978 *Longchen Rabjam (author), richard_barron (trans): The Precious Treasury of the Basic Space of Phenomena (Chöying Dzöd). Padma Publishing *Longchen Rabjam (author), Richard Barron (trans): A Treasure Trove of Scriptural Transmission: A Commentary on the Precious Treasury of the Basic Space of Phenomena. Padma Publishing (2001) ISBN 1881847306 *Longchen Rabjam (author), Richard Barron (trans): Precious Treasury of the Way of Abiding. Padma Publishing (1998) ISBN 1881847098 *Longchen Rabjam (author), Richard Barron (trans): The Precious Treasury of Philosophical Systems (Drupta Dzöd): Padma Publishing (2008) ISBN 1881847446 *Longchen Rabjam (author), Richard Barron (trans): The Precious Treasury of Pith Instructions (Man-ngak Dzöd): Padma Publishing (2007). ISBN 188184742X *Longchen Rabjam, The Practice of Dzogchen, translated by tulku_thondup, Snow Lion, 2002


Fair Use Bibliographic Sources

fair_use: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longchen_Rabjam Primary fair_use Compilation Source: ron_epstein, Ph.D, compiler, buddhism_a_to_z, Burlingame, california, buddhist_text_translation_society, 2003, p. isbn_0881393533 Paperback: 284 pages. http://www.BTTSOnline.org www.Amazon.com http://www.bttsonline.org/product.aspx?pid=118 http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0881393533/ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20 and many other sources (see bibliography).

Primary Original Source: The tripitaka of sutra, shastra and vinaya dharma teachings (as found in the scripture storehouse of the indian sanskrit- siddham, chinese, tibetan and japanese traditions of the nalanda_tradition of ancient nalanda_university) of shakyamuni_buddha, and his arya sagely bodhisattva bhikshu monk and upasaka disciples.

These good_and_wise_advisors (kaliyanamitra) dharma_master teachers include arya venerables om_tare_tuttare_ture om_ah_hum and namo to jivaka, charaka, lao_zi - mahakashapa, ashwagosha, shantideva - hui_neng - shen_kai sheng_ren_shr, bodhidharma, the 16 nalanda_acharyas 1. nagarjuna-manjushri, 2. arydeva, 3. buddhapalita, 4. bhavaviveka, 5. chandrakirti and chandragomin, 6. shantideva, 7. shantarakshita, 8. kamalashila, 9. asanga-maitreya, 10. vasubhandu, 11. dignaga, 12. dharmakirti, 13. vimuktisena, 14. haribhadra, 15. gunaprabha, 16. shakyaprabha; dharmarakshita, atisha, tsong_khapa, thogme_zangpo, nyingma padmasambhava, yeshe_tsogyel, machig_lapdron, tilopa, naropa, milarepa, sakya_pandita, kumarajiva, xuan_zang, baozhi, hui_yuan, daosheng, changzhi, fazang, han_shan, shi_de, yunmen, nichiren, honen, shinran, kukai, dogen, hakuin, jamgon_kongtrul, nyingma penor_rinpoche, bakula_rinpoche, dagri_rinpoche, kirti_tsenshab_rinpoche, geshe_lama_kongchog, longchen_rapjampa - gosok_rinpoche, phabongkha_rinpoche, patrul_rinpoche, tenzin_gyatso the dalai_lama, sakya_trizin, hsu_yun, hsuan_hua, lama_zopa_rinpoche, choden_rinpoche, garchen_rinpoche, karmapa, mingyur_rinpoche, geshe_ngwang_dakpa, geshe_sopa_rinpoche, seung_sahn, thich_nhat_hanh, ajahn_chah, ajahn_sumedho, s._n._goenka, mama_ayur_punya_jyana_pushtim_kuriye_svaha, making offerings and b_bowing at your feet I make requests. Please bestow on me the two_attainments of maha punya and maha prajna_paramita. And om_ah_hum thanks to other modern_day_masters. We consider them to be in accord with tripitaka_master hsuan_hua’s “seven_guidelines_for_recognizing_genuine_teachers

nalanda_online_university's teachings are based especially on the following buddhist_scriptures: lama tsong_khapa's lam_rim, the Dharma Flower lotus_sutra, the avatamsaka_sutra, the shurangama_sutra, the ksitigarbha_sutra, the bhaisajya_guru_sutra, the dharani_sutra, the vajra_sutra, the prajna_paramita Hridayam heart_sutra, the vimalakirti_sutra, the sanghata_sutra, the sutra_of_golden_light, the srimala_devi_sutra, the sutra_in_42_sections, the mahaparinirvana_sutra, the hui_neng_sutra, vasubandhu's shastra_on_the_door_to_understanding_the_hundred_dharmas, Maitreya's ornament_for_clear_realizations (abhisamayalamkara), chandrakirti's supplement_to_nagarjuna_s_treatise_on_the_middle_way (madhyamakavatara), vasubandhu's treasury_of_manifest_knowledge (abhidharmakosha) and the tantras and mantras of the vajrayana the 42_hands_and_eyes, guhyasamaja, the kalachakra, the vajrayogini, the heruka, the chakrasamvara, the chod, the hayagriva, the hevajra, the yamantaka, the kalarupa, the manjushri_nama_samgiti, the vajrakilaya, the vajrapani, the vajra_claws_dakini, the mahakala, the tara, the white_umbrella_goddess (she_dan_do_bo_da_la), kirti_losang_trinle's grounds_and_paths_of_secret_mantra, and aku_sherab_gyatso's the_two_stages_of_the_guhyasamaja_tantra and their commentaries (shastras) by the above Arya tripitakacharya dharma_masters. Making offerings and bowing at your feet I make requests. Please bestow on me the two_attainments of maha punya and maha prajna_paramita.

Secondary fair_use Compilation Source: The seeker_s_glossary_of_buddhism, 2nd ed., San Francisco, California: Sutra Translation Committee of the United States and Canada, 1998: http://www.budaedu.org.tw

Secondary fair_use Compilation Source: Muller, Charles, editor, digital_dictionary_of_buddhism [DDB], Toyo Gakuen University, Japan, 2007: Username is “guest”, with no password. http://buddhism-dict.net/ddb - Based in large part on the dictionary_of_chinese_buddhist_terms with Sanskrit and English Equivalents (by soothill and Hodous) Delhi, India: motilal_banarsidass, 1997.

Secondary fair_use Compilation Source: Ehrhard, Diener, Fischer, et al, The shambhala_dictionary_of_buddhism_and_zen, Boston, Massachusetts: shambhala_publications, 1991. 296 pages. ISBN 978-0-87773-520-5 http://www.Shambhala.com, http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877735204/ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20, http://www.shambhala.com/html/catalog/items/isbn/978-0-87773-520-5.cfm Secondary fair_use Compilation Source: vaidya vasant_lad, textbook_of_ayurveda, ayurvedic_press, 2002; vasant_lad, bams, masc, ayurvedic_institute_gurukula_notes, ayurvedic_institute, 1994-2006;

NOTE: Numerous corrections and enhancements have been made under shastra_tradition and “fair_use” by an anonymous buddhist_monk redactor (Compiler) of this Online buddhist_encyclopedia Compilation)

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