]] Heart Sutra (Skt. prajñāpāramitā hṛdaya; Tib. ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པའི་སྙིང་པོ་, Wyl. shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i snying po), aka The Twenty-Five Verses on the Perfection of Wisdom — the most popular sutra of the prajñaparamita collection and indeed of the Mahayana as a whole. Although the sutra primarily consists of a dialogue between Shariputra and the great Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, their words are inspired by the blessings of the Buddha, who remains absorbed in samadhi meditation until the end of the discussion. As with all the prajñaparamita sutras, the teaching took place at Vulture's Peak near Rajagriha.

It was first translated into Tibetan by Vimalamitra and Rinchen Dé. The translation was later revised by Gewé Lodrö, Namkha and others.

In the various commentaries, there are different explanations as to how the sutra can be related to the five paths.


The sutra includes the mantra tadyatha om gate gate paragate parasamgate bodhi svaha (tadyathā oṃ gate gate pāragate pārasaṃgate bodhi svāhā). Atisha explained that the mantra encapsulates the entire teaching of the Heart Sutra for the benefit of those of the sharpest faculties.<ref>Lopez (1996), p.170</ref>


The Heart Sutra is often recited together with a supplemental section for dokpa, the practice of averting harm and negativity. The text of the dokpa section refers to an incident recounted in the Perfection of Wisdom Sutra in Eight Thousand Lines and Perfection of Wisdom Sutra in Eighteen Thousand Lines, when the god Indra turned away Mara and his forces, who were approaching the Buddha, by contemplating and reciting the Prajnaparamita.<ref>Lopez (1996) pp.223-4</ref>



  • Jñanamitra, Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayavyākhyā ('phags pa shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i snying po'i rnam par bshad pa)
  • Mahajana, Prajñāpāramitāhṛdārthaparijñāna (shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i snying po'i don yongs su shes pa)
  • Prashastrasena, Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayaṭīkā ('phags pa shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i snying po rgya cher 'grel pa)
  • Vajrapani, Prajñāpāramitāhṛdārthapradīpa (bcom ldan 'das ma shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i snying po'i 'grel pa don gyi sgron ma)
  • Vimalamitra, Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayaṭīkā ('phags pa shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i snying po rgya cher bshad pa)


  • Gungthang Tenpé Drönmé, shes rab snying po'i sngags kyi rnam bshad sbas don gsal ba sgron me
  • Jamyang Gawé Lodrö
  • Ngawang Tendar, Light of the Jewel (shes rab snying po'i 'grel pa don gsal nor bu'i 'od)
  • Taranatha, Word Commentary (Tib. ཤེར་སྙིང་གི་ཚིག་འགྲེལ་, sher snying gi tshig 'grel)



  • Hsuan Hua, Commentary on the Heart Sutra, Ukiah, California: Buddhist Text Translation Society, 2002.
  • Dalai Lama, Essence of the Heart Sutra (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2002), includes a commentary by Jamyang Gawé Lodrö (1429-1503).
  • Garchen Rinpoche, Oral Commentaries on the Heart Sutra in Relation to Shamatha and Vipassana Meditation And Seven Point Mind Training, San Francisco 2001 (San Francisco, Ratna Shri Sangha).
  • Rabten, Geshe, Echoes of Voidness (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1983)
  • Sonam Rinchen, Geshe, The Heart Sutra, translated and edited by Ruth Sonam (Ithaca: Snow Lion, 2003)
  • Thich Nhat Hanh, The Heart of Understanding: Commentaries on the Prajnaparamita Heart Sutra (Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1988, 2009)
  • Khenpo Palden Sherab Rinpoche, Ceasless Echoes of the Great Silence, a Commentary on the Heart Sutra. Translated by Khenpo Tsewang Dongyal Rinpoche. Published by Sky Dancer Press. ISBN 1-880976-01-7


  • Edward Conze, The Short Prajnaparamita Texts, London: Luzac & Co, 1973

Famous Quotations



Teachings on the Heart Sutra Given to the [[About Rigpa|Rigpa]] Sangha

Further Reading

  • Conze, Edward. The Prajñāpāramitā Literature (1960)
  • Eckel, Malcolm David, “Indian Commentaries on the Heart Sutra: The Politics of Interpretation” in Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, vol. 10, no. 2 (1987), pp. 69-79.
  • Lopez, Donald S. The Heart Sutra Explained: Indian and Tibetan Commentaries, Abany: SUNY, 1988
  • Lopez, Donald S. “Inscribing the Bodhisattva's Speech: On the “Heart Sutra's” Mantra” in History of Religions, Vol. 29, No. 4. (May, 1990), pp. 351-372
  • Lopez, Donald S. Elaborations on Emptiness: Uses of the Heart Sūtra. Princeton University Press, 1996
  • Silk, Jonathan. The Heart Sūtra in Tibetan: A Critical Edition of the Two Recensions Contained in the Kanjur, Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien, Universitāt Wien (Vienna 1994).

Heart Sutra - Mahā-Prajñāpāramitā-Hṛdaya-Sūtra

The full title is heart of Prajna Paramita Sutra.

Considered the most popular Sutra in the world today, the Heart Sutra explains the meaning of Prajna Paramita, the perfection of wisdom that enables one to perceive clearly the emptiness of self and of all phenomena. The Heart Sutra is the heart of the perfection of wisdom; it is also the heart of the entire family of Prajna Paramita Sutras.

1) Chinese: bwo rwo bwo lwo mi dwo syin jin , 2) Sanskrit: Prajna Paramita Hridaya Sutra.

See Also: Sutra, emptiness, Wisdom, Vajra Sutra, Prajna

BTTS References: HS.


Pronunciations [py] Bōrě bōluómìduō xīnjīng [wg] Po-jo po-lo-mi-t'o hsin ching [hg] 반야바라밀다심경 [mc] Banya baramilda simgyeong [mr] Panya paramilda simgyŏng [kk] ハンニャハラミッタシンギョウ [hb] Hannya haramitta shingyō [qn] Bát nhã ba la mật đa tâm kinh

Basic Meaning: Heart Sūtra Senses:

  • Mahā-Prajñāpāramitā-Hṛdaya-Sūtra; Bore boluomiduo xinjing; a very short Mahāyāna sūtra that contains a terse articulation of the meaning of emptiness. Of the seven Chinese translations, by far the most popular are the renditions by Kumārajīva 鳩摩羅什 and Xuanzang 玄奘. Very popular in China, Korea and Japan, this version has been chanted daily throughout East Asia by clerics and laypeople for over a thousand years. There are many English translations. Usually referred to by the short title of 心經. Also called 般若心經; styled 神分心經 'divinely distributed,' when publicly recited to get rid of evil spirits. T 251.8.848c. (Prajñāpāramitā-hṛdaya). [cmuller D. Lusthaus]

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The rights to textual segments (nodes) of the DDB are owned by the author indicated in the brackets next to each segment. For rights regarding the compilation as a whole, please contact Charles Muller. Please do not reproduce without permission. And please do not copy into Wikipedia without proper citation!

Entry created: 1997-09-15 Updated: 2008-05-01

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T0253_.08.0849c13: 以無所得故。菩提薩埵依般若波羅蜜多故 T0253_.08.0849c14: 心無罣礙。無罣礙故無有恐怖。遠離顛倒夢 T0253_.08.0849c15: 想。究竟涅槃。三世諸佛依般若波羅蜜多故。 T0253_.08.0849c16: 得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。故知般若波羅蜜 T0253_.08.0849c17: 多是大神呪。是大明呪。是無上呪。是無等等 T0253_.08.0849c18: 呪。能除一切苦。眞實不虚。故説般若波羅蜜 T0253_.08.0849c19: 多呪。即説呪曰 T0253_.08.0849c20: 諦 諦 波羅諦 波羅僧諦菩提 T0253_.08.0849c21: 娑 蘇紇反 婆訶 T0253_.08.0849c22: 如是舍利弗。諸菩薩摩訶薩於甚深般若波 T0253_.08.0849c23: 羅蜜多行。應如是行。如是説已。即時世尊從 T0253_.08.0849c24: 廣大甚深三摩地起。讃觀自在菩薩摩訶薩 T0253_.08.0849c25: 言。善哉善哉。善男子。如是如是。如汝所説。 T0253_.08.0849c26: 甚深般若波羅蜜多行。應如是行。如是行時 T0253_.08.0849c27: 一切如來皆悉隨喜。爾時世尊説是語已。具 T0253_.08.0849c28: 壽舍利弗大喜充遍。觀自在菩薩摩訶薩亦 T0253_.08.0849c29: 大歡喜。時彼衆會天人阿修羅乾闥婆等。聞 T0253_.08.0850a01: 佛所説皆大歡喜。信受奉行 T0253_.08.0850a02: 般若波羅蜜多心經 T0253_.08.0850a03: T0253_.08.0850a04:


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Fair Use: Primary Fair Use Compilation Source: Ron Epstein, Ph.D, compiler, Buddhism A to Z, Burlingame, California, Buddhist Text Translation Society, 2003, p. ISBN 0881393533 Paperback: 284 pages. http://www.BTTSOnline.org www.Amazon.com http://www.bttsonline.org/product.aspx?pid=118 http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0881393533/ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20 and many other sources (see Bibliography).

Primary Original Source: The Tripitaka of Sutra, Shastra and Vinaya Dharma teachings (as found in the scripture storehouse of the Indian Sanskrit- Siddham, Chinese, Tibetan and Japanese traditions of the Nalanda Tradition of ancient Nalanda University) of Shakyamuni Buddha, and his Arya Sagely Bodhisattva Bhikshu Monk and Upasaka disciples.

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Nalanda Online University's teachings are based especially on the following Buddhist Scriptures: Lama Tsong Khapa's Lam Rim, the Dharma Flower Lotus Sutra, the Avatamsaka Sutra, the Shurangama Sutra, the Ksitigarbha Sutra, the Bhaisajya Guru Sutra, the Dharani Sutra, the Vajra Sutra, the Prajna Paramita Hridayam Heart Sutra, the Vimalakirti Sutra, the Sanghata Sutra, the Sutra of Golden Light, the Srimala Devi Sutra, the Sutra in 42 Sections, the Mahaparinirvana Sutra, the Hui Neng Sutra, Vasubandhu's Shastra on the Door to Understanding the Hundred Dharmas, Maitreya's Ornament for Clear Realizations (Abhisamayalamkara), Chandrakirti's Supplement to Nagarjuna’s Treatise on the Middle Way (Madhyamakavatara), Vasubandhu's Treasury of Manifest Knowledge (Abhidharmakosha) and the Tantras and Mantras of the Vajrayana the 42 Hands and Eyes, Guhyasamaja, the Kalachakra, the Vajrayogini, the Heruka, the Chakrasamvara, the Chod, the Hayagriva, the Hevajra, the Yamantaka, the Kalarupa, the Manjushri Nama Samgiti, the Vajrakilaya, the Vajrapani, the Vajra Claws Dakini, the Mahakala, the Tara, the White Umbrella Goddess (She Dan Do Bo Da La), Kirti Losang Trinle's Grounds and Paths of Secret Mantra, and Aku Sherab Gyatso's The Two Stages of the Guhyasamaja Tantra and their commentaries (shastras) by the above Arya Tripitakacharya Dharma Masters. Making offerings and bowing at your feet I make requests. Please bestow on me the two attainments of Maha Punya and Maha Prajna Paramita.

Secondary Fair Use Compilation Source: The Seeker’s Glossary of Buddhism, 2nd ed., San Francisco, California: Sutra Translation Committee of the United States and Canada, 1998: http://www.budaedu.org.tw

Secondary Fair Use Compilation Source: Muller, Charles, editor, Digital Dictionary of Buddhism [DDB], Toyo Gakuen University, Japan, 2007: Username is “guest”, with no password. http://buddhism-dict.net/ddb - Based in large part on the Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms with Sanskrit and English Equivalents (by Soothill and Hodous) Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass, 1997.

Secondary Fair Use Compilation Source: Ehrhard, Diener, Fischer, et al, The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen, Boston, Massachusetts: Shambhala Publications, 1991. 296 pages. ISBN 978-0-87773-520-5 http://www.Shambhala.com, http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877735204/ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20, http://www.shambhala.com/html/catalog/items/isbn/978-0-87773-520-5.cfm Secondary Fair Use Compilation Source: Vaidya Vasant Lad, Textbook of Ayurveda, Ayurvedic Press, 2002; Vasant Lad, BAMS, MAsc, Ayurvedic Institute Gurukula Notes, Ayurvedic Institute, 1994-2006;

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