guhyasamaja_pindikrita-sadhana_thesis_paper

====== The Guhyasamāja Piṇḍikṛta-sādhana and 
its Context


Prepared as part of the MA Study of 
Religions  (Buddhist Studies Pathway) 
MA (Religions), School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London

Copyright Roger Wright, 2010

2 3 Contents Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..5 1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..7 2. Background to the text……………………………………………………………………………………………………8 2.1. The text and its place in the canon………………………………………………………………………..8 2.1.1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………8 2.1.2. The title of the text ……………………………………………………………………………………….8 2.1.3. Editions used for the translation……………………………………………………………………10 2.2. The author and history of the text and translations………………………………………………..12 2.2.1. Nāgārjuna as the author – various opinions…………………………………………………..12 2.2.2. Dating the Piṇḍikṛta-sādhana……………………………………………………………………….15 3. Ritual, doctrinal and architectural content………………………………………………………………………..17 3.1. Overall structure of the text…………………………………………………………………………………17 3.2. General consideration of the text as a sādhana…………………………………………………….18 3.3. Specific aspects of the text…………………………………………………………………………………19 4. Comments on the language of the text……………………………………………………………………………49 5. Relationship to other texts…………………………………………………………………………………………….51 6. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….55 Appendix A. Structure of the sādhana related to the four yogas and the three sādhana stages…….56 Appendix B. Maṇḍala Visualizations……………………………………………………………………………………..57 B.1. Visualizing the thirty-two deities within the Maṇḍala Palace……………………………………57 B.2. Visualizing the main deity body maṇḍala……………………………………………………………..58 B.3. Dissolving the deity body maṇḍala………………………………………………………………………59 B.4. Visualizing the deity consort body maṇḍala………………………………………………………….60 B.5. Visualizing the thirty-two deities of the maṇḍala and their activities…………………………61 Appendix C. Diagrams and plates illustrating the Sādhana………………………………………………………67 Appendix D. Sanskrit and Tibetan text with correlated English translation………………………………….73 Appendix E. Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………………………………..119 4 5

Abstract

This paper analyses and comments on the Pi􏰀􏰁ik􏰂ta-sādhana, a ritual practice manual for the Guhyasamāja Highest Yoga Tantra, attributed to Nāgārjuna. It is based on a correlated translation of the Sanskrit and Tibetan versions of the text prepared for the purpose. Various opinions concerning the author and the date of the original setting down of the text (800-950 CE) are examined and the contents of the sādhana are explained and put into the context of other sādhanas and the corpus of Guhyasamāja texts. Particular attention has been given to making the translation of the visualizations of the architecture and the deities themselves clear by providing tables and illustrations. The philosophical background of the text is investigated and the way in which that was subtly altered by subsequent commentators when it no longer fitted the later “philosophical climate” is made clear. The continuity of the practice is discussed, from its inception to the present day. 6 7

1. Introduction

The Pi􏰀􏰁īk􏰂ta sādhana is a ritual practice manual (Sadhana) for the performance of the Guhyasamāja Tantra. Based on the attached translation of the Pi􏰀􏰁ik􏰂ta-sādhana produced for the purpose, this paper analyses the contents of the sādhana and places the sādhana in its context within the corpus of Guhyasamāja Highest Yoga Tantra works. The title is also used to describe the ritual itself.

The text is most likely to have originally been set down between 800 and 950 CE, yet it is still performed regularly in Tibetan Buddhist monasteries, particularly of the Gelukpa School, as can be seen in the documentary film “ A Buddhist Trilogy” 1, performed by the monks of Thikse monastery in Ladakh. The sādhana is not usually performed in public, so the extract in this film is very useful. The sub-titles for the ritual have been translated by Geshe Thubten Jinpa who translated the “Sacred Words of Lord Akshobhya” 2, one of the Tantra commentaries cited below. Scenes 24 and 26 of the film correspond to vv.17-26 and vv36-37 of the translation, though the words chanted are those of the more developed version by Tsong-kha-pa 3. This paper investigates the Tantric history and contents of the Pi􏰀􏰁īk􏰂ta sādhana, tracing the origin and development of the text through to the version used today.

                                                
1 Coleman 2005.

2 Akhu Sherab Gyatso 1999.

3 Tsong kha pa T5303

8

2. Background to the text

2.1. The text and its place in the canon

2.1.1. Introduction

The Pi􏰀􏰁ik􏰂ta-sādhana (Pindikrita-Sadhana) 4 is a ritual text which is a practice guide for the performance (cultivation) of the Guhyasamāja tantra. It provides instructions for the visualization of the Guhyasamāja ma􏰀􏰁ala, for visualizing oneself as the deities and for then undertaking the ritual activities of these deities. As such it represents the “Generation Stage” of a Highest Yoga Tantra 5 practice, as opposed to the “Completion Stage”.

The text is attributed to Nāgārjuna and is closely associated with another work similarly attributed, the Pañcakrama 6. This work represents the “completion stage” and describes the process of dissolution of the self and rebirth in the state of clear light through raising the inner psychic power resident in the network of channels 7 and wheels 8 (or knots) which make up the psychic physiology common to Buddhist Tantra and Brahmanical Tantra (Hindu Tantra).

2.1.2. The title of the text

The text of the Pindikrita-Sadhana is extant in Sanskrit and Tibetan. It was not translated in antiquity into Chinese (Hanzi) by the time interest in Tantra waned in China.

                                                
Footnote 4 henceforth PKS (Pindikrita-Sadhana)

5 Sanskrit: Anuttara-Yoga-Tantra

6 henceforth PK

7 Sanskrit: nā􏰁ī (Nadi)

8 Sanskrit: cakra (Chakra) 9 The Sanskrit text was first published with notes in French by Louis de la Vallée Poussin 9. More recently, Tripathi produced a critical edition of the text with notes in Hindi 10. The text was translated into Tibetan twice: first by Śraddhākavarman and Rin-chen bZang-po, found in both the Tibetan Tripitaka Derge Edition 11 and Tibetan Tripitaka Peking Editions 12 of the Tengyur and later by Chag Chos-rje dPal, only found in the Peking 13 and related editions of the Tengyur. The text has two different Sanskrit titles: in the corresponding catalogues, the Sanskrit titles of Tibetan Tripitaka Peking Edition T1796 and Tibetan Tripitaka Peking Edition P2661 are given as “Pi􏰀􏰁ik􏰂ta-sādhana” whereas the title of Tibetan Tripitaka Peking Edition P4788 is given as “Pi􏰀􏰁ikrama-sādhana”. The Sanskrit text refers to itself as “Pi􏰀􏰁ikrama-sādhana” in the closing verse and so it seems most likely that this is the original title 14. However, since the text is mostly referred to as “Pi􏰀􏰁ik􏰂ta-sādhana”, this will be employed as the title within this paper.

In Tibetan, the titles used are as follows: T1796: sgrub pa'i thabs mdor byas pa P2661: sgrub pa'i thabs mdor byas pa P4788: bsdus pa'i rim pa'i bsgrub thabs P4788 is often overlooked as the title differs from the other two.

                                                
9
de la Vallée Poussin 1896. 
10
Tripathi 2001. 
11
Nāgārjuna T1796 
12
Nāgārjuna P2661 
13
Nāgārjuna P4788 
14
Mimaki and Tomabechi 1994: ix n4. 
10 2.1.3. Editions used for the translation Except where noted, the 1896 Sanskrit edition by de la Vallée Poussin and the Tibetan edition of Derge T1796 have been used. For the most part they are in agreement – variant readings are noted throughout the full translation given in Appendix D. Sanskrit editions Sanskrit editions Sanskrit editions Sanskrit editions
 
The edition by de la Vallée Poussin was prepared from two Sanskrit manuscripts in the Bibliothèque nationale, Paris, which together provide a complete text of the PKS and PK and a word-commentary on both by Parahitarak􏰃ita called “Pañcakrama􏰄ippa􏰀ī”15. Tripathi used the printed edition of de la Vallée Poussin along with three others for his edition of the PKS: • Louis de la Vallée Poussin: Études et Textes Tantriques: Pañcakrama16 • 􏰅hakurasena Negī: Personal copy obtained by him in Nepal in 1987 – devanāgarī, complete. (Although unavailable to this author, the differences in this edition noted by Tripathi indicate it is very similar to the edition used by de la Vallée Poussin) • Pūr􏰀aratnavajrācārya (ed.): Kramasādhana, B􏰂hatsūcīpatram, Vol. 7. pt.1. National Archives of Nepal, 1964
                                                
15
de la Vallée Poussin 1896: vi. 
16
de la Vallée Poussin 1896. 
11 • J. Filliozat: Manuscrit sanscrit no. 65-66, Catalogue du Fonds Sanscrit, fasicule I, Bibliothèque nationale de France, 1941, (This is the edition originally used by de la Vallée Poussin) The verse numbering from de la Vallée Poussin has been preferred to that of Tripathi, who split some three-line verses into two, but not others and omitted an entire verse, v.200 in de la Vallée Poussin, but gives no reason. Tibetan editions Tibetan editions Tibetan editions Tibetan editions
 
The Derge and Peking versions, T1796 and P2661 agree closely, such differences being able to be accounted for by accumulated copying errors. Occasionally the Peking version has been preferred, which is noted in Appendix D. The Peking version P4788 does have certain differences, since, as will be seen, it was re-translated and revised over three hundred years later. In particular, v.17 and the extended colophon will be discussed below. The foliation used for the Tibetan text is that of the Derge edition, T1796. 12 2.2. The author and history of the text and translations 2.2.1. Nāgārjuna as the author – various opinions The text is traditionally attributed to Nāgārjuna. The closing verse of the Sanskrit version and the colophon of the Tibetan versions all state as much. Bu-ston (1290-1364CE17) also says the same, commenting that it demonstrates the “Initial Development18“ in an abbreviated form19. There are two traditions of commentary following from the Guhyasamāja Root Tantra20. The two traditions are named after their founders: the “Jñānapāda tradition”21, after Buddhaśrījñāna and the “Ārya tradition”22 also known as the “saint tradition” or “noble tradition”, after Ārya Nāgārjuna. Being attributed to Nāgārjuna, the PKS is part of this tradition. This author touched on the history of the Ārya tradition in a recent paper23, but more research has been undertaken since then. Various texts from the Ārya tradition are attributed to Nāgārjuna, Āryadeva and Candrakīrti. However, these masters of the Madhyamaka were all alive at a much earlier period than could account for them writing such tantric texts: Nāgārjuna is now thought most likely to have lived in the period 150-250CE24,25 with Āryadeva as his disciple and Candrakīrti in 600-650CE26. There is
                                                
17
Snellgrove and Richardson 1968: 170. 
18
i.e. the Generation Stage 
19
Bu-ston Rin-chen-grub. 1932: 126. 
20
henceforth GST 
21
Roerich 1949: 367-374. 
22
Roerich 1949: 358-367. 
23
Wright 2009: 5-6. 
24
Walser 2005: 86. 
25
Williams 2009: 84. 
26
Williams 2009: 67. 
13 little in the tantric works attributed to Nāgārjuna which allow them to be dated: they only refer to the Guhyasamāja Root and Subsequent Tantras and to the Explanatory Tantras (vyākhyātantra). However, of the available Tibetan historical accounts of the development of Buddhism, Tāranātha does provide an account explaining how these works come to be attributed to Nāgārjuna, allowing an attempt at dating them. On the other hand, Bu-ston clearly does consider Nāgārjuna to be the author of these works, explaining that Nāgārjuna was active for 600 years27. ‘Gos Lo-tsa-ba gZhon- nu-dpal glosses over the point28 by listing Nāgārjuna, Candrakīrti, Śi􏰃yvajra, K􏰂􏰃􏰀ācārya, Gomiśra, Abbhijña and ‘Gos Lhas-btsas as the lineage. ‘Gos Lhas-btsas was a disciple of ‘Brog-mi (992- 1072CE29) and a contemporary of Marpa30, so we have just six individuals spanning a period of about 750 years, yet ‘Gos make no comment on this (although it is consistent with Nāgārjuna living for 600 years and the others having a “normal” lifespan). Tāranātha does not seem to consider that anyone can have a supernatural lifespan. For example, he says of one of the abbots of Vikramaśīla, Śrīdhara: “The Tibetans imagine that he was a direct disciple of ācārya K􏰂􏰃􏰀ācārya, but the periods of their coming to the mortal world were different and hence he could not have been his disciple when, in the later period, he received his vision31“
                                                
27
Bu-ston Rin-chen-grub. 1932: 137. 
28
Roerich 1949: 360. 
29
Snellgrove 1987: 488. 
30
Roerich 1949: 208. 
31
Chimpa and Chattopadhyaya 1990: 326. 
14 Both the Ganden Jangtse Guhyasamāja Lineage prayer32 and Tāranātha relate that Māta􏰆gīpa received all the tantric works of Nāgārjuna “father and son”33, meaning Nāgārjuna and Āryadeva. However, in order to account for the fact that Nāgārjuna and Āryadeva were both long dead by that time, Tāranātha explains: “Though it is said that siddha Māta􏰆gī was a disciple of ācārya Nāgārjuna, and his disciple [Āryadeva], he could not have lived at that time [ i.e. the time of Nāgārjuna and Āryadeva]. He could have had their vision later”34 In addition, Tāranātha relates that ācārya Rak􏰃ita-pāda composed the Pradīpoddyotana under the instructions of Candrakīrti and that pa􏰀􏰁ita Rāhula met Nāgabodhi, presumably also in a vision35. So we see that it is not possible that the tantric works attributed to Nāgārjuna and the other famous Madhyamaka masters were actually composed by them. It appears that they were first set down by the individuals who are credited with having received them in visions, as explained by Tāranātha.
                                                
32
Ganden Jangtse. 
33
Chimpa and Chattopadhyaya 1990: 273. 
34
Chimpa and Chattopadhyaya 1990: 129. 
35
Chimpa and Chattopadhyaya 1990: 273. 
15 2.2.2. Dating the Piṇḍikṛta-sādhana A version of the Guhyasamāja Tantra and two works attributed to the Jñānapāda tradition are found in the “rnying ma’i rgyud ‘bum“36 and so must have existed prior to 815CE when Ral-pa-can became king of Tibet37. Earlier than this, Amoghavajra lists a “Guhyasamāja-yoga” text among the contents of the “Vajraśikhara-sutra“ which he reported on his trip from China to Śri Lanka and South India (744-746CE). He describes the contents, which match some of the chapters of the extant GST. This is the only text subsequently classified as Highest Yoga Tantra in that set38. As explained above, the PKS is part of the Ārya tradition. It does not form part of the Jñānapāda tradition and is not referred to by the works of that tradition – the ma􏰀􏰁ala layout of the Jñānapāda tradition is completely different, for example39. Attempting to date Jñānapāda’s activities might indicate a point at which the PKS had not yet been “revealed”. Matsunaga says that Jñānapāda was active during the latter half of the 8CCE37. Bu-ston40 and gZhon-nu-dpal41 both relate that Jñānapāda was a disciple of Haribhadra, who died more than twenty years into the reign of the Pāla king Dharmapāla42. Tāranātha’s chronology of the Pāla kings Dharmapāla and Devapāla is confused: he has reversed the order of their reigns. He says that Dharmapāla is the grandson of
                                                
36
Roerich 1949: 102-103. 
37
Matsunaga 1977: 114. 
38
Tsuda 1999: 305-306. 
39
Meisezahl 1976: 221. 
40
Bu-ston Rin-chen-grub. 1932: 159. 
41
Roerich 1949: 367. 
42
Bu-ston Rin-chen-grub. 1932: 158. 
16 Devapāla. In fact, as given by Bu-ston43 Devapāla was the grandson of Dharmapāla: this has been confirmed by archaeological discoveries made at the time of Cunningham of the Archaeological Survey of India, conveniently summed up by Jhunu Bagchi44. Dharmapāla is now thought to have reigned 775-810CE , giving a date of about 795CE for the death of Haribhadra, supporting Matsunaga’s date for Jñānapāda’s activities of 750-800CE. The Ganden Jangtse Guhyasamāja Lineage prayer gives Tilopa as the next member of the lineage after Māta􏰆gīpa and the Song of Tilopa relates how he received the Guhyasamāja lineage from Māta􏰆gīpa45. Wylie has shown how the traditional dates of Nāropa, Tilopa’s disciple, are misplaced by one sixty-year calendar cycle46 and the same applies to Tilopa, giving 928-1009CE. Allowing time for Māta􏰆gīpa to “receive” the teachings from Nāgārjuna and then pass them on to Tilopa would give a date of perhaps 925-975CE for this. As such, it is likely that the PKS did not exist until at least 800CE and probably did exist by 950CE. This range is about fifty years earlier than that proposed by Wedermeyer for the Caryāmelāpakapradīpa of Āryadeva47 which is subject to the same lineage and dating.
                                                
43
Bu-ston Rin-chen-grub. 1932: 157. 
44
Bagchi 1993: chap. 3. 
45
Nalanda Translation Committee and Trungpa 1980: 126. 
46
Wylie 1982: 691. 
47
Wedemeyer 2007. 
17 3. Ritual, doctrinal and architectural content 3.1. Overall structure of the text The text consists of a number of sections which reflect the stages of the meditational practice. These may be conveniently summarized as follows: Purpose of section Purpose of section Purpose of section Purpose of section
 
Verses 
Verses Verses Verses
 
Homage verse 1 1 Motivation 2 5 Location and preparation for the practice 6 7 Protection wheel 8 9 Destruction of obstructing forces and staking 9 16 Dissolution and emptiness 16 18 Four elemental ma􏰀􏰁alas 19 22 Visualizing the Ma􏰀􏰁ala Palace 23 26 Visualizing and seating the thirty-two deities 27 35 Absorbing the deities into the body 36 37 Manifesting as a Tāthāgata 38 Dissolution of the aggregates, elements and faculties 39 43 Entry into the “all-empty” Clear Light 44 46 Manifestation of a sun-disc, moon-disc and lotus 47 50 Practice of Subsequent Yoga (anuyoga) 51 52 Placing the deities on the body and practice of Higher Yoga (atiyoga) 52 68 Commencing the practice of Great Yoga (mahāyoga) 69 Blessing the Body 70 77 Blessing the Speech 78 83 Blessing the Mind 84 89 Blessing Body, Speech and Mind together, 90 Imagining the Commitment, Wisdom and Concentration Beings 91 92 Commencing the practice of the Great Accomplishment 93 Manifesting the consort 94 95 Placing the deities on the consort's body 96 101 Union with the consort 102 106 18 Visualizing oneself as the main deity and undertaking the Buddha-activities 107 115 Visualizing oneself as each other deity in turn and undertaking its specific activity, then sitting down in the ma􏰀􏰁ala 116 197 Practice of the subtle yoga (sūk􏰃mayoga) - visualizing the vajra and drop 198 204 Songs of the Four Goddesses 205 210 Worshiping the Five Buddhas 211 215 Abiding as the Single Lord 216 Transforming the whole universe into the same state 217 Recalling the benefits of this practice 218 220 Purifying and seeing the true nature of the food-offering 221 228 How the whole world obtains the deathless state through this practice 229 230 Colophon: stating title, author, translators into Tibetan (follows) 3.2. General consideration of the text as a sādhana The PKS identifies itself as a sādhana through its title. Skorupski has discussed the various elements of sādhanas, illustrating them with examples from the “kun rig cho ga'i rnam bshad”, the Explanation of the Ritual of the all-seeing (Vairocana)48. Skorupski identifies three major types of sādhanas: self-generation or visionary perception of oneself as a specific deity, visualization of a set of deities placed within a vase, known as “vase meditation” and the visualization of a set of deities arranged in one or more ma􏰀􏰁alas. The sādhana analysed by Skorupski is a Yoga Tantra, whereas the PKS is a later Highest Yoga Tantra: as such there are some significant differences. After a series of preparatory activities, in PKS vv.23-35, one visualizes the Ma􏰀􏰁ala Palace in
                                                
48
Skorupski 2001: 83-135. 
19 which the practice takes place and then places the thirty-two deities within, beginning with oneself as Ak􏰃obhya. This section aligns with the ma􏰀􏰁ala visualization described by Skorupski. Then in verses 107-197, the self-generation practice is undertaken: one visualizes oneself as each of the thirty-two deities and undertakes their specific activities in turn. Such a practice is also described by Skorupski. The major difference lies in the lack of a Vase Meditation in the PKS. Instead of laying out a set of deities at specific locations within a vase, we find two cycles of laying out the deities on the body of the practitioner and then on the body of the consort in PKS vv.52-101. This difference may be accounted for by the consideration of the body as a vessel, leading to the replacement of the Vase visualization with that of the Body Ma􏰀􏰁ala. 3.3. Specific aspects of the text 1 Homage 1 Homage 1 Homage 1 Homage
 
The homage verse of the PKS is not just a homage to Buddha but also to Nājārjuna the Madhyamaka. It parallels the homage verse at the start of the Mūlamadyamakakārikā where Nāgārjuna pays homage to “the fully enlightened one”, “the best of speakers who has demonstrated Dependent Arising”, with the PKS using such epithets as “freed from the laws of the three realms” 20 and “the only being free from conceptual thought”49. The association of these two states: “freed from the laws of the three realms” and “being free from conceptual thought” is a key concept in Yogācāra philosophy and in the Sanskrit text, “nirvikalpa” is used for the second term. Wayman has pointed out the use of Yogācāra vocabulary in texts of the Guhyasamāja corpus50, particularly noting such use in the Vajramālā51 from which the PKS itself says it has “arisen”52. With the dating of the PKS as proposed above and the association of Buddhaśrījñāna with the Guhyasamāja tradition, we can see that the philosophical background to the Guhyasamāja tradition comes from the Yogācāra-Madhyamaka school, as follows. Buddhaśrījñāna was a disciple of Haribhadra and both Haribhadra and Buddhaśrījñāna are credited with writing philosophical works in the Yogācāra-Madhyamaka school53. Given the practices of Highest Yoga Tantra, involving the visualization and creation with the mind of universes, palaces, thrones, deities and so forth followed by actually becoming the deities and undertaking their activities, the Yogācāra interpretation of reality and the central role of “mind” in that provides an appropriate philosophical basis for tantra. The “original” Madhyamaka philosophical position, on the other hand, does not provide any specific support to tantra. The Yogācāra basis of tantra will be discussed further in consideration of PKS v.17 below.
                                                
49
PKS v.1 
50
Wayman 1977: 194, 202. 
51
Wayman 1977: 202. 
52
PKS v.230 
53
Ruegg 1981: 101-102. 
21 2 22 2- – -5 Motivation 5 Motivation 5 Motivation 5 Motivation
 
The motivation repeats the point that vikalpa (discursive thought) binds beings to the three realms. It then makes the point that with tantra one practices wisdom through bliss – not through suffering and penance. 6 66 6- – -7 Location for the practice 7 Location for the practice 7 Location for the practice 7 Location for the practice
 
A pleasant location for the practice is recommended, albeit a solitary one. The recommendation of a “soft seat” should be much appreciated by present-day practitioners. 8 88 8- – -9 Visualizing the Protection Wheel 9 Visualizing the Protection Wheel 9 Visualizing the Protection Wheel 9 Visualizing the Protection Wheel
 
Apart from the pose of the deities and that they should be visualized in the ten directions, no specific detail is provided to aid in visualizing the ten wrathful deities. Wayman relates that the ten deities are named in the Vajramālā, chapter 2354, where they are found to be the ten wrathful deities described later in PKS verses 160-197. The mantra commanding Sumbharāja to destroy any obstructions is recited next. This mantra is found in a number of other works, employed for removing obstacles: in the Guhyasamāja root tantra55, the Sarva-tathāgata-tattva-sa􏰇graha56 and the Sarvadurgatipariśodhana Tantra57 where it
                                                
54
Wayman 1977: 243. 
55
Fremantle 1971: 306. 
56
Yamada 1981: 159, 269. Henceforth STTS. 
57
Skorupski 1983: 292, tr. 104. Henceforth SDPS. 
22 occurs twice and likely represents the first use of this mantra, as far as can be seen. “su􏰇bha nisu􏰇bha” is also rendered as “śu􏰇bha niśu􏰇bha” in some places. In this translation, “śu􏰇bha niśu􏰇bha” is interpreted as a pair of verbal imperatives from √śumbh. They can also be taken as vocative nouns when they are the names of a pair of Brahmanical deities involved in a famous revolt against Śiva. Linrothe relates this story58 and proposes parallels between it and Trailokyavijaya’s subjugation of Maheśvara in the STTS Chapter 6 where the mantra first occurs. Considering the mantra and the story as related, four points can be made: 1. If the verbal senses of “śu􏰇bha” and “niśu􏰇bha” are not used, the mantra doesn’t have any sense of destroying obstacles – the destructive force being provided by these two verbs. 2. In the legend, Śu􏰇bha and Niśu􏰇bha are destroyed by Śiva – making them not very appropriate deities to invoke as powerful wrathful protectors. 3. In the STTS verses, “śu􏰇bha” and “niśu􏰇bha” only occur in the mantras, not as “characters” in the main body of the narrative; 4. “niśu􏰇bha” occurs without “śu􏰇bha” in the same section of the STTS, in the mantra: o􏰇 nisu􏰇bha vajra hū􏰇 pha􏰄 yet in the legend, they always appear together.
                                                
58
Linrothe 1999: 180-182. 
23
For these reasons, in this translation, the verbal sense has been adopted, rather than leaving 
them as the untranslated names of the deities. 10 10 10 10- – -16 Staking the wrathful deities 16 Staking the wrathful deities 16 Staking the wrathful deities 16 Staking the wrathful deities
 
This visualization summons up Vajra-am􏰂ta in the form of a “vajrakīla” or vajra-dagger. Vajra-am􏰂ta is coloured dark blue, but otherwise unidentified. However in the GST ch.1359, Vajra- am􏰂ta occurs in a ma􏰀􏰁ala placed between Hayagrīva and 􏰅akkirāja, indicating that this is another name for Am􏰂taku􏰀􏰁ali. He is envisaged in wrathful form, when he is known as “Vihnantak􏰂t”, which means “maker of obstruction(s)”, yet here he performs the role of the destroyer of obstructions – a case of poacher turned gamekeeper. The form of Vajra-am􏰂ta as a vajra-kīla and the activity he undertakes is very similar to that of the deity actually known as “Vajra-kīla60“, who is the subject of a variety of texts and practices which remain popular up to the present day, known as “Vajra-kilaya”. Mayer has commented on the likely common origin of this part of the PKS and a Vajra-kīla text in Tibetan recovered from Dunhuang61.
                                                
59
Ch.13 v.102, Fremantle 1971: 284, tr. 81. 
60
Tib: rDo-rje Phur-pa 
61
Mayer 2004: 130n1, ff. 
24 16 16 16 16- – -18 Dissolution and emptiness 18 Dissolution and emptiness 18 Dissolution and emptiness 18 Dissolution and emptiness
 
PKS v.17 is found in the GST ch.262. Fremantle comments that it is difficult to relate its meaning in English as it comes from the relationship between “bhāva”, as substance or existence and “bhāvana” as meditation or conception which come from their common root “bhū” – being. The Tibetans also found translating this difficult and the second translation, by Chag Chos-rje dPal63, restates this verse with a translation more literally representing the original Sanskrit. The linking of “bhāva” with “bhāvana” is a particular Yogācāra concept found at the heart of Tantra. There are a variety of translations of this verse into Tibetan: the GST, PKS and the Pradīpoddyotana, attributed to Candrakīrti; other commentaries originally in Sanskrit and various commentaries written in Tibetan, including those by Bu-ston and Tsong-kha-pa. Yale Bentor makes particular mention of how Tsong-kha-pa addresses this verse in her paper looking at the different ways this verse has been analysed and explained by various authors64: . . . there appears something like a refutation of external objects and an establishment [of them] as mind-only; . . . It seems that [some people], unable to examine this very thoroughly, did not understand that the position of the Noble Father and his Spiritual Sons in general and the position of the commentator [Candrakīrti] in particular, which
                                                
62
Ch.2 v.3, Fremantle 1971: 190, tr. 34, commentary 143n1 . 
63
Nāgārjuna P4788: 2b2 
64
Bentor 2010: 95-96. 
25 accept external objects as conventional designations. Therefore, they say that the system of the Pradīpoddyotana does not accept external objects.65 We see here that Tsong-kha-pa is having to reconcile the position of Candrakīrti the Mādhyamika, who is credited with being the founder of the Prāsa􏰆gika branch of Madhyamaka philosophy with that of Candrakīrti the Tantrika who is quite happy to relate Yogācāra ideas without comment. Bentor explains that Tsong-kha-pa glosses over other aspects of this when analysing other statements in Candrakīrti’s Pradīpoddyotana. In PKS v.18, the idea of emptiness as the basis of Tantra is demonstrated when the first elemental ma􏰀􏰁ala is brought forth from that very emptiness with the phrase “after thinking that what is empty no longer has the nature of being unchanging . . .”. So Emptiness is here viewed as having an active nature.
 23 
 23 
 23 
 23- 
– -26 Visualizing the Ma􏰀􏰁ala Palace 26 Visualizing the Ma􏰀􏰁ala Palace 26 Visualizing the Ma􏰀􏰁ala Palace 26 Visualizing the Ma􏰀􏰁ala Palace
 
Some earlier texts give instructions for visualizing a Ma􏰀􏰁ala Palace as part of their Ma􏰀􏰁ala practice. For example, the SDPS Tantra describes one that is simpler than the one described here66, whilst Buddhaśrījñāna describes one in the Jñānapāda tradition in his Samantabhadra-nāma- sādhana67 which is very similar to the one here. The ma􏰀􏰁ala described here is used in the Ārya
                                                
65
Bentor 2010: 96. 
66
Skorupski 1983: 160-161, tr: 27. 
67
Buddhaśrījñāna, T1855: 29b6-30a2 
26 tradition. A number of descriptions of it have been published, translated from Tibetan commentarial material: Lama Doboom Tulku translates an unidentified passage from T1810, “dpal gsang ba 'dus pa'i dkyil 'khor gyi cho ga nyi shu” (Śrī-guhyasamāja-ma􏰀􏰁ala-vi􏰇śati-vidhi) by Nāgabodhi68 and Thurman translates an unidentified passage from the “Glorious Esoteric Communion Self-Creation Yoga” practice manual of Namgyal Monastery.69 Both these translations suffer in the same way: the Sanskrit text uses Indian architectural terms to describe the Palace, which were translated “literally” into Tibetan, losing their meaning unless accompanied by a commentary. Doboom Tulku and Thurman do not reflect the architectural usage in their translations. Mori, in his work on the Vajrāvalī70 has helpfully identified where the various architectural features lie on the flat ma􏰀􏰁ala projection, but still does not translate them. “Indian Architecture” by Brown71 and “Indian Monoliths” by Nagar72 provide useful background to the architecture of Indian Temples and allow the following summary of the architectural terms used in the PKS to be made. Further work was required by this author to clarify certain terms:
                                                
68
Doboom Tulku. 2004: 61-62. 
69
Thurman 1995: 222-223. 
70
Mori 2009: 641. 
71
Brown 1971. 
72
Nagar 1992. 
27 Sanskrit Tibetan Architectural meaning Source tora􏰀a rta babs arched or roofed gateway or porch Brown (Glos. p.209) stambha ka ba column Brown (Glos. p.209), Nagar (Intro. p.3) kumbha-stambha73 bum pa ka ba column with pot- shaped capital (also called melon capital) Brown (Pallavas p.79) Nagar (Intro. p.3-5) mahā-vajra􏰇 rdo rje che (when used to describe a stambha) eight sided great (pillar) Nagar (Intro. p.2-3) kramaśīr􏰃a􏰈 bre la phreng ba coping of a wall See below
Mori identifies that the location of the kramaśīr􏰃a􏰈 on the tora􏰀a of the Guhyasamāja 
ma􏰀􏰁ala and of the Cittama􏰀􏰁ala of the Kālacakrama􏰀􏰁ala74 are the same. As he does this on a stylized “flat projection”, it is difficult to understand where this feature lies on a real building. Fortunately, in his book on Ma􏰀􏰁alas75, Brauen provides a “key” to the Kālacakra ma􏰀􏰁ala diagram, showing which elements represent a “plan” projection (i.e. the horizontal surfaces) and which represent an “elevation” projection (i.e. the vertical surfaces). Combining both sets of information allows us to see that the kramaśīr􏰃a􏰈 is the topmost layer (or coping) of the wall. The diagrams are reproduced in Appendix C. To help make the meaning of the translation clearer, some photographs of a three-dimensional model of the Guhyasamāja Ma􏰀􏰁ala Palace are included in Appendix C. The model resides in
                                                
73
See Figure 3 on page 67 for an example. 
74
Mori 2009: 641, 644. 
75
Brauen 1997: 68. 
28 rGyud-sMad Tantric College in Karnataka, India. The picture of the tora􏰀a shows the “kumbha- stambha” with the “kumbha” as the base not as the capitals. This has been “corrected” in the second image, to align with this translation.
 27 
 27 
 27 
 27- 
– -35 Visualizing and seating the thirty 35 Visualizing and seating the thirty 35 Visualizing and seating the thirty 35 Visualizing and seating the thirty- – -two deities two deities two deities two deities
 
A self-visualization takes place with one assuming the form of each of the thirty-two deities in turn and oneself taking the corresponding seat within the Ma􏰀􏰁ala Palace. The details of the deities’ appearances are not given here, but v.27 indicates that the full forms of the deities should be imagined. The details of each deity are provided later in verses 116-197, when a further round of self-visualization is undertaken. The locations of Māmakī and Locanā given in the PKS differ from those given in the GST. This has been noted by Tsuda76 and will be discussed below (v.116-197). 36 36 36 36- – -46 Absorbing the deities into the body, ma 46 Absorbing the deities into the body, ma 46 Absorbing the deities into the body, ma 46 Absorbing the deities into the body, manifesting as a Tāthāgata, dissolution of nifesting as a Tāthāgata, dissolution of nifesting as a Tāthāgata, dissolution of nifesting as a Tāthāgata, dissolution of the aggregates, elements and faculties and entry into the Clear Light the aggregates, elements and faculties and entry into the Clear Light the aggregates, elements and faculties and entry into the Clear Light the aggregates, elements and faculties and entry into the Clear Light
 
In v.36, a body-ma􏰀􏰁ala visualization takes place, as is referred to in v.37. No details are given here, but the details are provided when this process is repeated in vv.57-68. The four form- goddesses are not included in that body-ma􏰀􏰁ala instruction, although they are included in the Consort Body Ma􏰀􏰁ala, vv.96-101 that follows it. Since they are included in the dissolution that
                                                
76
Tsuda 1999: 285ff. 
29 follows, here it is clear that they should be envisaged as well. V.38 appears to be a summary of what is to happen next, with reference to the Vajramālā77 for a full explanation. In vv.39-42, four cycles of dissolution take place, one for each of the Buddha families other that that of Ak􏰃obhya. In each cycle, a group of five entities is merged with the “two wrathful ones”. In v.43, it is clear that these are “the wrathful ones above and below” – Sumbharāja and U􏰃􏰀ī􏰃acakravartī. Each of the entities is associated with particular deities from the body ma􏰀􏰁ala which are dissolved along with the entity, so carrying out the “bring(ing) them into (their) true state” referred to in v.37. The five entities in each round of dissolution are: one of the aggregates, one of the Buddha Wisdoms, one of the elements, one of the sense faculties and one of the sense objects. The entities and their corresponding deities are given in Appendix B.3. The inclusion of the Buddha Wisdoms here again brings a strong Yogācāra element into this part of the practice. The Buddha Wisdoms are specifically defined in the Mahāyānasūtrāla􏰇kāra of Maitreya with commentary by Asa􏰆ga78. There is a conflict here in the placing of Khagarbha and Lokeśvara in the dissolution since the sense faculties they are associated with are aligned with different Buddha families from those of the deities themselves. Khagarbha is from the Ratnasambhava family and Lokeśvara is from the Amitābha family. Sarvanīvara􏰀a-vi􏰃kambin represents the “whole body” in the body ma􏰀􏰁ala and is
                                                
77
T455 Vajramālā Guhyasamaja Explantory Tantra 
78
Maitreya & Asa􏰆ga T4020: 106a4-5 
30 from the Amoghasiddhi family and Sparśavajrā represents the sense object of touch, being Ak􏰃obhya’s consort. It is not clear in the PKS when these latter two dissolve. Also, of the ten Wrathful Deities, only Sumbharāja and U􏰃􏰀ī􏰃acakravartī are specifically mentioned, yet is clear that by the end, nothing is left. Later commentaries include a pair of Wrathful Deities in each cycle of dissolution and also include Sarvanīvara􏰀a-vi􏰃kambin and Sparśavajrā in the fourth cycle of dissolution79 since these two are related to the whole body which only completely dissolves at the end of the fourth cycle of dissolution. In v.43, U􏰃􏰀ī􏰃acakravartī, representing the consciousness aggregate80 and Sumbharāja as its “purified object” – an understanding of the “fundamental appearance (of reality)”, merge into pure consciousness, represented by Mañjuśrī who has not been dissolved thus far. Mañjuśrī then dissolves into the Clear Light, which also constitutes the final dissolution of Ak􏰃obhya, whose consciousness he represents, finally leaving nothing. This state of Clear Light is identified as the “All-empty Nirva􏰀a” and also as the Dharmakāya. 47 47 47 47- – -50 50 50 50 Manifestation of a sun Manifestation of a sun Manifestation of a sun Manifestation of a sun- – -disc, moon disc, moon disc, moon disc, moon- – -disc and lotus disc and lotus disc and lotus disc and lotus
 
There are various differing explanations of these verses in the commentaries. However, they are related to a series of four samādhis at the start of GST Ch.1181 where the sun-disc, moon-disc,
                                                
79
Akhu Sherab Gyatso 1999: 131. 
80
vijñāna-skandha 
81
Ch.11 v.4-20 Fremantle 1971: 242-247, tr. 59-61. 
31 lotus and their related syllables o􏰇, ā􏰈 and hū􏰇 represent the Body, Speech and Mind of all Tathāgatas. These all become united and take on the nature of the wisdom-vajra which was referred to earlier in the mantra following v.44. This union, having the nature of the wisdom vajra which represents emptiness is then referred to as the “moon-disc filled with bodhicitta”, bodhicitta being used in its sense of the ultimate nature of reality. One then considers all existence to be in the same state. 51 51 51 51- – -52 52 52 52 Practice of Subsequent Yoga (anuyoga) Practice of Subsequent Yoga (anuyoga) Practice of Subsequent Yoga (anuyoga) Practice of Subsequent Yoga (anuyoga)
 
This section introduces the term “Subsequent Yoga”, which along with “Higher Yoga” (v.52) and “Great Yoga” 82 (v.69) make up the final three of the “Four Yogas”. The first element of the “Four Yogas” is the “Initial Yoga”, sometimes just called “Yoga”. Since the verse says: “After taking up the yoga in this way, one should practice the “Subsequent Yoga“, it seems that the Initial Yoga is provided by the content of the sādhana up to this point, since no particular starting point is indicated for it. Wayman provides a note explaining the Four Yogas as understood in the Guhyasamāja tradition83 and the structure of the PKS is related to this in Appendix A. Wayman confirms, as can be seen from their location in the PKS, that the four yogas make up the Generation Stage practice.
                                                
82
Skt: anuyoga, atiyoga, mahāyoga 
83
Lessing and Wayman 1978: 223n19. 
32 Apart from recreating the o􏰇, ā􏰈 and hū􏰇 syllables which were dissolved into the bodhicitta as above and then transforming these into the Ādibuddha, the PKS does not provide any other details as to the practice to perform for the Subsequent Yoga. Later commentaries, from those attributed to Candrakīrti onwards84, explain this yoga as representing the exercise of the Body, Speech and Mind of the Sambhogakāya, which is consistent with the structure of the sādhana since the previous section manifested the Dharmakāya (v.44ff) and the following section manifests the Nirmā􏰀akāya. 52 52 52 52- – -68 Placing the deities on the body and practice of Higher Yoga (atiyoga) 68 Placing the deities on the body and practice of Higher Yoga (atiyoga) 68 Placing the deities on the body and practice of Higher Yoga (atiyoga) 68 Placing the deities on the body and practice of Higher Yoga (atiyoga)
 
In the Guhyasamāja tradition, as explained above, mahāyoga comes after atiyoga: so “atiyoga” has been translated here as “higher yoga” rather than “highest yoga”. The Higher Yoga solely consists of transforming oneself, as the Ādibuddha, into the form of Ak􏰃obhya and visualizing the deities and their attributes placed on various parts of the body, as listed in Appendix B.2. For many deities, the detail is sparse and later commentaries, as for the previous section, provide the missing syllables, colours, natures and so forth.
                                                
84
Akhu Sherab Gyatso 1999: 136, Tsephel, Yangchen Gawai Lodoe, and Nagarjuna 1995: 32, Wayman 1977: 249. 
33 69 69 69 69- – -90 Beginning the practice of Great Yoga (mahāyoga) and blessing the Body, the 90 Beginning the practice of Great Yoga (mahāyoga) and blessing the Body, the 90 Beginning the practice of Great Yoga (mahāyoga) and blessing the Body, the 90 Beginning the practice of Great Yoga (mahāyoga) and blessing the Body, the Speec Speec Speec Speech, the Mind and all three together h, the Mind and all three together h, the Mind and all three together h, the Mind and all three together
 
The Great Yoga begins with a three-part visualization and blessing of oneself as the Body, the Speech and the Mind vajras. The process uses a three-buddha family representation of Body, Speech and Mind, with Vairocana paired with Locanā, Amitābha paired with Pā􏰀􏰁aravāsinī and Ak􏰃obhya paired with Māmakī, rather than with Sparśavajrā, his consort in the Guhyasamāja ma􏰀􏰁ala. Snellgrove has discussed the development of the three and five buddha families within the development of tantra85 and the location of Māmakī in the Guhyasamāja ma􏰀􏰁ala will be discussed further below. The pairs of deities are brought forth from the same seats and syllables as were used in vv.47-50 when bringing forth the Sambhogakāya, at the crown, throat and heart, but with the emphasis on the female deities first. In each cycle, verses from the GST Ch.12 are recited86, requesting the “Buddhas of the ten directions” to transform one into the vajras of body, speech and mind and to bless one. In each case, a mantra is recited, “confirming” the transformation. Ak􏰃obhya is not explicitly mentioned, but it is instructed that the practitioner is to merge with Māmakī and as one has already taken the form of Ak􏰃obhya in v.53, it is clear that Māmakī is paired with Ak􏰃obhya here, rather than Ratnasambhava.
                                                
85
Snellgrove 1987: chap. III.11. 
86
GST 12.71-12.76 
34 One then takes on the natures of all three together, in preparation for the next stage. 91 91 91 91- – -92 Imagining the Commitment, Wisdom and Concentration Beings 92 Imagining the Commitment, Wisdom and Concentration Beings 92 Imagining the Commitment, Wisdom and Concentration Beings 92 Imagining the Commitment, Wisdom and Concentration Beings
 
In his discussion of Yoga Tantra sādhana, Skorupski describes the nature of a Commitment Being87 and its corresponding Wisdom Being88 as being “a visionary mental representation of the deity” and “a true (i.e. real) and potent aspect of the deity”89. We have seen that the “visionary” version of the deities has been used to draw in the “real” deities of Body, Speech and Mind in the same way. Here the Wisdom Being is visualized at the heart of the Commitment Being. Skorupski explains that the Commitment and Wisdom Beings merge together into a “fully perfected deity” which he does not name. Here we see this deity called the Concentration Being90, located at the heart of the Wisdom Being, but represented only by the syllable hū􏰇. 93 Commencing the practice of the Great Accomplishment 93 Commencing the practice of the Great Accomplishment 93 Commencing the practice of the Great Accomplishment 93 Commencing the practice of the Great Accomplishment
 
V.93 marks the end of the Great Yoga and states that the Great Accomplishment91 will now be undertaken. Thus far, the PKS has described its own structure in terms of the Four Yogas, as summarized in Appendix A. Wayman92 describes how Nāgārjuna and Candrakīrti divide the Four Yogas across the two previous sādhana stages, not actually mentioned in PKS:
                                                
87
Skt: samaya-sattva 
88
Skt: jñāna-sattva 
89
Skorupski 2001: 83. 
90
Skt: samādhi-sattva 
91
Skt: mahāsādhana 
92
Wayman 1977: 156-157, 175-178. 
35 “Near Accomplishment”93 and “Accomplishment”94, followed, as stated in PKS, by “Great Accomplishment”. This arrangement is also shown in Appendix A as well. The PKS itself clearly states that the Great Accomplishment begins at this point, with the manifesting of and union with the consort, described below, being part of it. Later commentaries include this as the final part of the Accomplishment stage and align the Great Yoga with the Great Accomplishment95. Tsephel provides a justification for this apparent change, not, however, noting that it is at variance with the PKS.96 94 94 94 94- – -101 Manifesting and placing the deities on the consort's body 101 Manifesting and placing the deities on the consort's body 101 Manifesting and placing the deities on the consort's body 101 Manifesting and placing the deities on the consort's body
 
After assuming the form of the deity consort, Sparśavajrā, specified as a youthful dark blue princess but not specifically named, the five main Buddhas – Vairocana to Amoghasiddhi, identified by their syllables, are placed on one’s body. The other deities are placed as listed in Appendix B.4. The final ten female deities are the consorts of the ten wrathful male deities. 102 102 102 102- – -106 Union with the consort 106 Union with the consort 106 Union with the consort 106 Union with the consort
 
Other than the use of the body rather than a vase for the placing of the deities, so far this the practice has consisted of elements that are not be out of place in Yoga Tantra. This section marks
                                                
93
Skt: upasādhana 
94
Skt: sādhana 
95
Tsephel, Yangchen Gawai Lodoe, and Nagarjuna 1995: 41-42. 
96
Tsephel, Yangchen Gawai Lodoe, and Nagarjuna 1995: 45. 
36 one of the activities that set Higher Yoga Tantra apart from the “lower” tantras – the practice of sexual union, whether carried out as a self-visualization or with an actual partner. Fremantle comments on the corresponding section of the GST97, quoting the Pradīpoddyotana of Candrakīrti to the effect that a “real” girl is the consort here98. Reciting the mantra of passion, v.104f, and uniting with the consort, one emits the bodhicitta, in the sense of semen, with the “pha􏰄”. Offering this with the mantra of worship, v.106f, one comes forth again as Ak􏰃obhya, from the bodhicitta - both in the sense of the semen and of emptiness. 107 107 107 107- – -197 Visualizing the deitie 197 Visualizing the deitie 197 Visualizing the deitie 197 Visualizing the deities in turn, undertaking their specific activities and s in turn, undertaking their specific activities and s in turn, undertaking their specific activities and s in turn, undertaking their specific activities and placing them in the ma􏰀􏰁ala placing them in the ma􏰀􏰁ala placing them in the ma􏰀􏰁ala placing them in the ma􏰀􏰁ala
 
This section represents the Victorious Ma􏰀􏰁ala Yoga99 which also forms part of Yoga Tantra. Skorupski describes the equivalent practice of Sarvavid Vairocana in “Three Types of Evocation”, which he calls “Highest Royal Ma􏰀􏰁ala”. There one manifests oneself as the main deity of the ma􏰀􏰁ala, in that case, Vairocana. Vairocana then manifests each deity from its associated mantra and sends it forth to perform its work for the benefit of living beings, before withdrawing each deity and placing it in the appropriate seat within the ma􏰀􏰁ala100. In similar fashion, in the PKS, already manifested as Ak􏰃obhya, as above, one brings forth
                                                
97
Ch.6 v.2 Fremantle 1971: 208, tr. 43-44. 
98
Fremantle 1971: 147n7. 
99
Skt: vijayama􏰀􏰁alayoga 
100
Skorupski 2001: 104-105. 
37 another Ak􏰃obhya from the mantra “vajradh􏰂k” and sends that forth to exercise the “miraculous powers of a Buddha”101, returning it to ones own heart and merging with it. Then, as listed in Appendix B.5, each of other thirty-one deities of the ma􏰀􏰁ala are brought forth from their respective mantras and sent out to perform their appropriate Buddha activities. Each is then returned to the heart of the central Ak􏰃obhya and then placed in the ma􏰀􏰁ala on their specific seats. So this part of the PKS again aligns with the equivalent practice in Yoga Tantra. Although the deities were visualized and placed in the ma􏰀􏰁ala earlier, in vv27-35, the full details of the deities’ appearances and locations are only provided in this section. It might be supposed that the layout of the ma􏰀􏰁ala is derived from some description in the GST itself. This is mostly true, the description forming part of GST Ch.1102. However, Tsuda has pointed out anomalies between GST Ch.1 and PKS vv107-197, which he summarizes in section 4 of his paper103. He makes two points: 1. The positions of Locanā and Māmakī are reversed between the GST and the PKS; 2. The positions of the Sense Goddesses are not clearly identified in the GST and the positions they have in PKS are not supported by his interpretation of GST Ch.1. Th Th Th The positions of Locanā and Māmakī e positions of Locanā and Māmakī e positions of Locanā and Māmakī e positions of Locanā and Māmakī
 

                                                
101
PKS v.111 
102
Ch.1 vv.2-4 Fremantle 1971: 180-189, tr. 29-33. 
103
Tsuda 1999: 128-135. 
38 With regard to the first point, Tsuda proposes that Nāgārjuna has misunderstood or “distorted” the ma􏰀􏰁ala described in the GST. We will use “Nāgārjuna” as a convenient shorthand for whoever did write the PKS, as discussed above. If this is the case, we might suppose that this problem would confined to the Ārya Guhyasamāja tradition and the earlier Jñānapāda tradition might preserve a different interpretation. The Guhyasamāja ma􏰀􏰁ala of the Jñānapāda tradition is described in the work by Buddhaśrījñāna addressing the Generation Stage, available in Tibetan with the somewhat confusing title: “kun tu bzang po zhes bya ba'i sgrub pa'i thabs” 104, said to have been translated from the “Samantabhadra-nāma-sādhana” in Sanskrit, now lost. However, the layout of the four female consorts as described there matches that in the PKS, not the hypothetical earlier arrangement proposed by Tsuda. So it seems as if the “cause” of the problem arises earlier, in some material common to both traditions, which also rules out the Guhyasamāja Explanatory Tantras, as they are only used by the Ārya tradition. Tsuda relates that the locations of the five Buddhas and the four consorts are the same in the STTS and the GST, except that Locanā and Māmakī are interchanged and have been carried forward into the GST ma􏰀􏰁ala from the STTS ma􏰀􏰁ala. Unfortunately this proves not to be the case on inspection. It is possible to justify Tsuda’s idea, but this requires intermediate steps. In STTS Ch. 1, a “Vajra-dhātu-mahā-ma􏰀􏰁ala” is described, which is conveniently
                                                
104
Buddhaśrījñāna, T1855: 32a7-33a1 
39 summarized by Mori as the “Vajradhātuma􏰀􏰁ala”105. Neither Māmakī nor Locanā are found here, as are neither Pā􏰀􏰁aravāsinī nor Tārā also. Instead, in the intermediate directions next to each of the four surrounding Buddhas, on their left hand side, we find Vajra-lāsyā, Vajra-mālā, Vajra-gītā and Vajra-n􏰂tyā106. Tsuda does mention these deities and calls them the “Four Inner Offering Goddesses”, but passes by the absence of the Four Goddesses Māmakī etc. without comment. Skorupski’s translation of the SDPS, another yoga tantra work closely related to the STTS, gives two versions of an SDPS ma􏰀􏰁ala: the first version from his source “A” 107 is earlier, translated into Tibetan at the end of the 8thCCE108; the second version, represented by Mori109 is from a later 13thCCE108 source “B”110. The two versions are quite different. Version “A” does resemble the Vajradhātuma􏰀􏰁ala but, critically, includes the Four Goddesses Māmakī etc. They are found in the locations previously held by Vajra-lāsyā etc., with these four goddesses being “demoted” a level in the ma􏰀􏰁ala and now being paired with the “Four Outer Offering Goddesses”: Vajra-dhūpā, Vajra- pu􏰃pā, Vajra-dīpā and Vajra-gandhā; all eight offering goddesses now residing in the outer “gallery”111. It is this configuration of the Four Goddesses that appears to be carried forward into the GST ma􏰀􏰁ala from the SDPS Ma􏰀􏰁ala, rather than the configuration in the STTS Ma􏰀􏰁ala,
                                                
105
Chart 21, Mori 2009: 655ff. 
106
Yamada 1981: 47-50. 
107
Skorupski 1983: 311n5 ff. 
108
Skorupski 1983: xvii. 
109
Chart 25, Mori 2009: 657. 
110
Skorupski 1983: 28-31. 
111
Skorupski 1983: 311n5. 
40 where, as stated above, they do not occur at all. The progression of the ma􏰀􏰁ala layout from STTS to SDPS to GST suggests that this would be the sequence of the texts in time as well. There is no specific evidence to support this but the dating of the translations of these three works into Chinese is consistent with it112: — STTS (Ch.1) Taisho 865 Amoghavajra 753CE; — SDPS Taisho 939 Faxian 989-999CE; — GST Taisho 885 Dānapāla 1002CE. On inspection, Taisho 939 is found to be based on Skorupski’s (later) version “B”113. The positions of the Sense Goddesses The positions of the Sense Goddesses The positions of the Sense Goddesses The positions of the Sense Goddesses
 
Tsuda proposes that in his “original” GST, the four Sense Goddesses, Rūpavajrā, Śabdavajrā, Gandhavajrā and Rasavajrā occupy the seats of the intermediate directions adjacent to the four Buddhas surrounding Ak􏰃obhya: Vairocana, Ratnasambhava, Amitābha and Amoghasiddhi, with Māmakī, Locanā, Pā􏰀􏰁aravāsinī and Tārā in the intermediate directions of the first level down. He again proposes that Nāgārjuna has misunderstood or “distorted” the ma􏰀􏰁ala described in the GST. As Tsuda has already mentioned that the four Inner Offering Goddesses occupy these positions in the STTS and he has not “demoted” them as has happened in the SDPS, he supposes them to be
                                                
112
All dates from: Lancaster and Park 1979. 
113
Taisho 939 Vol.19 pp.89b12-89c19 have 
金剛大佛頂
(Vajra-mahā-u􏰃􏰀ī􏰃a) to 
白繖蓋頂 (Chatro􏰃􏰀 ī 􏰃a), matching Skorupski 2001: 28-29., hence his version “B” . 41 carried forward into the GST ma􏰀􏰁ala, but transformed into the four Sense Goddesses. However, apart from belonging to the same Buddha-families, there seems to be little in common between them to justify the association: Description - SDPS114 Description – PKS vv.147-152 Vajra-lāsyā seduction white holding two vajras Rūpavajrā form white main object: mirror Vajra-mālā garland yellow holding a garland Śabdavajrā sound yellow main object: lute Vajra-gītā song pale read holding a kind of lute Gandhavajrā smell red main object: conch Vajra-n􏰂tyā dance green holding a three-pronged vajra Rasavajrā taste green vessel
 
Tsuda then goes on to say that the Sense Goddesses are actually in union with their corresponding Buddhas, rather than seated on their left-hand sides where Vajra-lāsyā etc. are found in the STTS ma􏰀􏰁ala. He proposes this based on his interpretation of the phrase “mahāmudrāsa􏰇yogaparamapadai􏰈”, which is used to describe the state of each of the five main Buddhas as they are manifested in GST Ch.1. However, Fremantle prefers “mahāmudrāsa􏰇yogaparamapadena”, noting “. . .ai􏰈” as a variant reading115. Tsuda proposes that the sa􏰇yoga, which he takes as “union”, is here with a “mahāmudrā”, as a “highest mudrā”, with
                                                
114
Skorupski 1983: 312n5. 
115
Fremantle 1971: 182-184, tr. 29-31. 
42 mudrā in the meaning of a tantric consort116. Fremantle translates it as “union with the Great Symbol of . . .”. Comparing the two, it should be said that the Sanskrit “sa􏰇yoga” has much more of the meaning of “absorption” or “merging with” than that of a temporary joining of two things. Taking Fremantle’s interpretation, we see that the presiding deity merges with the “Great Symbol” of each of the deities to be manifested – “Vajradh􏰂k” etc. and brings forth the relevant deity from that union, as described in PKS vv. 108-197. So here , Tsuda’s proposal as to the original location of the four Sense Goddesses does not really stand up: in the SDPS ma􏰀􏰁ala, the four Inner Offering Goddesses have been moved away from the central four intermediate positions to the corners where the four Outer Offering Goddesses are and his interpretation of the four Sense Goddesses being in union with the four directional Buddhas does not seem an appropriate translation either. Remaining questions concerning the layout of the ma􏰀􏰁ala Remaining questions concerning the layout of the ma􏰀􏰁ala Remaining questions concerning the layout of the ma􏰀􏰁ala Remaining questions concerning the layout of the ma􏰀􏰁ala
 
The SDPS ma􏰀􏰁ala has been identified above as the likely source for the layout of four Buddha Consorts in the GST ma􏰀􏰁ala. The positions of the Sense Goddesses are not defined in the GST, although they are related as coming forth from the “Body, Speech and Mind of all Tathāgatas”117. It seems as if there is a common source to the ma􏰀􏰁alas of the Jñānapāda and Ārya traditions, varying slightly from the layout in the GST: Māmakī and Locanā are reversed and the
                                                
116
Tsuda 1999: 131. 
117
Fremantle 1971: 174, tr.27. 
43 Sense Goddesses are placed in their specific locations. However this has not yet been identified. It is unlikely to be the Guhyasamāja Explanatory Tantras as these do not form part of the Jñānapāda tradition. As to the reversal of Māmaki and Locanā, this would seem a logical consequence of the “promotion” of Ak􏰃obhya to the central position and the movement of Vairocana to the East. To anyone with a strong sense of symmetry, it would be natural to reverse Māmakī and Locanā to match. It is the GST itself which seems anomalous here, when comparing the SDPS with the layout in the PKS. The locations of the Sense Goddesses align with their Buddha families, but as to their origins and role in the GST, no convincing precursors have been identified – Tsuda’s proposal is not convincing. This remains an open question also118. Determining the source of the “intermediate” position between the GST and the PKS in order to identify the origins of the transposition of Māmakī and Locanā and the locations of the Sense Goddess remains a topic for further research. 198 198 198 198- – -204 204 204 204 Practice of the subtle yoga (sūk􏰃mayoga) Practice of the subtle yoga (sūk􏰃mayoga) Practice of the subtle yoga (sūk􏰃mayoga) Practice of the subtle yoga (sūk􏰃mayoga) - – - visualizing the vajra and drop
visualizing the vajra and drop 
visualizing the vajra and drop 
visualizing the vajra and drop 
 
This section begins the “subtle yoga”119 and represents the “Victorious Activities Yoga“120. A practice with this title also occurs in Yoga Tantra but as described by Skorupski as the “Highest
                                                
118
Skorupski makes brief mention of five deities Vajrarūpā, Vajraśabdā etc. as part of an SDPS sādhana in Skorupski 2001: 125. 
However, the origin of these deities and their relationship to Rūpāvajrā, Śabdavajrā etc. in the GST is not at all clear. 119
Skt: sūk􏰃mayoga 
120
Skt: karmavijayayoga 
44 Royal Works”, it has very different characteristics. Skorupski121 outlines a front visualization practice with the full ma􏰀􏰁ala in front of one. One “forms” the four mudras or symbolic gestures called seals, of the pledge, teaching, action and great seals122 with one’s hands while reciting corresponding mantras, finally dissolving the ma􏰀􏰁ala and absorbing the deities into oneself. A photographic depiction of the seal gestures and further description of them by Tsong-kha-pa is given by Hopkins123. In these verses of the PKS, however, one undertakes a self-visualization as the main deity, seated in the centre of the ma􏰀􏰁ala. The subtle yoga has two parts – imagining the entire universe within a tiny jewel at the tip of the nose and emanating it with clouds of Bodhisattvas, and a second emanation of a vajra. It is indicated that this is accompanied by the recitation of mantras (v.203) but further detail is not provided in the PKS. Then one dissolves into emptiness – one’s “true state of reality” (v.204). Further explanation of this stage is given in later commentaries. For example, Tsephel et al. explain that the Subtle Yoga is practiced on two levels124: the “level of the beginner” and when one has successfully completed the “coarse yoga”, which is the whole practice up to that point. This corresponds to the description in PKS v.201 as to whether one’s visualization is stable or not. They
                                                
121
Skorupski 2001: 105. 
122
Skt: samayamudrā, dharmamudrā, karmamudrā and mahāmudrā 
123
Hopkins, Tsong-kha-pa, and H.H. Dalai Lama 2005: pl. 1-4. 
124
Tsephel, Yangchen Gawai Lodoe, and Nagarjuna 1995: 42n43. 
45 explain that one can only visualize the deities and their symbols into the drop and then emanate them once it is stable. In order to achieve stability, they explain that if one experiences laxity, one meditates on the drop and if one experiences excitement, one mediates on the vajra. Tsephel et al. also explain that this practice rapidly achieves the union of Calm Abiding125 and Special Insight126, stability representing the achievement of Calm Abiding and the emanating and returning of the clouds of deities representing the exercise of Special Insight127. Hopkins explains this as well128. The later commentaries also explain that this practice acts as a “bridge” into the “Completion Stage” practices. This same practice is then “re-interpreted” with the vocabulary of “winds”, “centres” and “channels” to form the beginning of the Completion Stage129. This will not be discussed further here, however, as the PKS does not address the Completion Stage130. 205 205 205 205- – -215 Songs of the Four Goddesses and 215 Songs of the Four Goddesses and 215 Songs of the Four Goddesses and 215 Songs of the Four Goddesses and Worshiping the Five Buddhas
Worshiping the Five Buddhas 
Worshiping the Five Buddhas 
Worshiping the Five Buddhas 
 
In the verses of the Songs of the Four Goddesses (vv.205-209), the Goddesses are not named. They are identified in the GST itself from where these verse are taken131 and also in the Pradīpoddyotana of Candrakīrti: in the Sanskrit version of the GST, Māmakī is named as the first,
                                                
125
Skt. śamatha 
126
Skt. vipaśanā 
127
Tsephel, Yangchen Gawai Lodoe, and Nagarjuna 1995: 48-49. 
128
Hopkins, Tsong-kha-pa, and H.H. Dalai Lama 2005: chap. 3. 
129
Tsephel, Yangchen Gawai Lodoe, and Nagarjuna 1995: 55. 
130
See the discussion below on the relationship between the PKS and the PK  
131
GST vv.17.72-75 
46 with Locanā second, the other two not being identified; in the Tibetan GST, only the second is named, being Māmakī; in the Pradīpoddyotana of Candrakīrti they are identified as Locanā, Māmakī, Pa􏰀􏰁aravāsinī and Tārā132. Once again we see the inversion of Māmakī and Locanā and inconsistency in the objects of praise: Goddess (Skt. GST) Object of praise (Skt. PKS) Goddess (Tib. GST & Pradīpoddyotana) Object of praise (Tib. PKS) Māmakī vajrasattva (vajra nature) (Pr. Locanā) rdo rje'i thugs (vajra mind) Locanā vajrakāya (vajra body) Māmakī rdo rje sku (vajra body) (Pa􏰀􏰁aravāsinī) vajravāca (vajra speech) (Pr. Pa􏰀􏰁aravāsinī) rdo rje gsung (vajra speech) (Tārā) vajrakāma (vajra desire) (Pr. Tārā) rdo rje'i ‘dod pa133 (vajra desire)
 
If we align the Goddesses with their original male consorts from the SDPS ma􏰀􏰁ala, described above, Locanā aligns with Vairocana who represents “body”, Pa􏰀􏰁aravāsinī with Amitābha as “speech” and Māmakī with Ak􏰃obhya as “mind”134. The inversion of Locanā and Māmakī loses this relationship. There is no explanation of the layout offered in the PKS or the later commentaries already cited above. Apparently the Songs do “arouse” the deity to emerge again from Emptiness (v.210) and all four goddess join in a five-fold praise. This lauds him with the qualities of each of the Five Buddhas
                                                
132
Fremantle 1971: 172n13. 
133
as in P4788 11a2 and GST 17.75 
134
as for Tāra, Snellgrove relates that she represents “the unity of body, speech and mind”: Snellgrove 1959: 1:49. 
47 in turn. The five verses of praise are from GST Ch. 17 vv.1-5135. 216 216 216 216- – -217 Abiding as the Single Lord and transforming the whole universe into the 217 Abiding as the Single Lord and transforming the whole universe into the 217 Abiding as the Single Lord and transforming the whole universe into the 217 Abiding as the Single Lord and transforming the whole universe into the same state same state same state same state
 
This verse summarizes a number of stages of emanation and dissolution which are explained in the commentary by Akhu Sherab Gyatso136. All the deities of the ma􏰀􏰁ala are again manifested and then merged with the deities placed on the body earlier as the “body ma􏰀􏰁ala”. The Ma􏰀􏰁ala Palace is dissolved into the body and the body deities dissolved in a similar fashion to that in vv.36-46, the consort then being dissolved into the Lord, leaving the Lord alone in the state of great bliss. The practitioner then visualizes the all the inhabitants of the universe as vajra-beings (enlightened beings) and works to bring this into actual reality. 21 21 21 218 88 8- – -230 Concluding and subsequent practices 230 Concluding and subsequent practices 230 Concluding and subsequent practices 230 Concluding and subsequent practices
 
The final section is described by Akhu Sherab Gyatso as the “yoga of in-between sessions”137 meaning what one should do while not undertaking the actual sādhana. PKS v.281 recalls v.4 in the practice of “wisdom through bliss” with vv.222-228 particularly relating the eating of food while
                                                
135
Fremantle 1971: 373, tr. 122. 
136
Akhu Sherab Gyatso 1999: 183-184. 
137
Akhu Sherab Gyatso 1999: 184-191. 
48 v.229 explains the benefits of the practice in terms of longevity, good health, prosperity and so on. The sādhana concludes with v.230 which compares the sādhana to butter or curds brought forth when the ocean of Guhyasamāja is churned with the paddle the Vajra-māla explanatory tantra. Colophon and Extended Colophon Colophon and Extended Colophon Colophon and Extended Colophon Colophon and Extended Colophon
 
The text was first translated during the “New Tantra” period by Rin-chen bZang-po. It is not found in the “Old Tantra” collections, even though a version of the GST is found there. It was revised much later by Chag Chos-rje dPal under Ravīndraruci sometime between 1200-1250CE. Chag Chos-rje dPal produced new translations of a number of tantric works, including the SDPS138.
                                                
138
Skorupski 1983 version "B". 
49 4. Comments on the language of the text The Sanskrit text in written in ślokas of anu􏰃􏰄ubh metre, except where verses are quoted from the GST. The grammar of the text is completely “classical”, not exhibiting any of the peculiarities of “Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit” as defined by Edgerton. Specific Buddhist vocabulary is employed sometimes, but this is likely to have been in common use by the time of the text. One example of this is “adhi-sthā”: v.16, 74,82 etc., used in the sense of “bless”, as found in Edgerton139 under “adhiti􏰃􏰄hati”. Edgerton proposes to delete the meaning “to bless”, but that fits the senses employed in PKS and is how it has been translated in the Tibetan. Another example is “tathatā”: v.37, found in Edgerton with the sense of “true nature”. However, in both cases, their grammatical usage is fully classical. The most commonly used verb form in the text is the third person singular optative. Some translators render this into English with a second person imperative: “Do this . . .”, but in the attached translation, the English forms “one ought to do . . .”, “one should do . . .”, “one must do . . .” are used. This is, after all, how optatives are formed in English and the use of the impersonal pronoun “one” reinforces the optative sense. This does produce “old fashioned” sounding English, but as it is the direct analog of the Sanskrit grammatical forms and is perfectly proper English, it has been used throughout. There are occasional second and third person
                                                
139
Edgerton 1953. 
50 imperatives used in the PKS, found in verses quoted from the GST. These are generally translated as direct instructions or “strong requests” to the deities. The Tibetan text, translated by Rin-chen bZang-po as part of his major translation activities, has a uniformity of vocabulary and shows no grammatical peculiarities, in common with most of his other works. The optative verb forms are rendered into the Tibetan future tense, sometime also with the addition of “bya”, the future of the auxiliary verb “byed”. There seem to be two cases of corruption or interpolation of material. In the Tibetan text, it appears as if in verse 2, “don bsdu rtogs pa re bye ba’i phyir”, which matches the Sanskrit “􏰃a􏰄-ko􏰄i-artha-ava-bodhata􏰈”, “because of the understanding of the six crores of meanings . . .” has become corrupted to “don bsdu rtogs par bya ba'i phyir” in P2661 and to “mdor bsdus rtogs par bya ba'i phyir” in T1796. In the Sanskrit text and Tibetan texts, v.202 seems to be an insertion as its subject has no relationship to the surrounding verses. PKS vv.200-201 represent an incomplete quotation, matching GST 3.12-13. Replacing v.202 with a quotation of GST 3.14 would remove this anomalous verse and complete the quotation. 51 5. Relationship to other texts Pañcakrama Pañcakrama Pañcakrama Pañcakrama
 
As described earlier, the PKS occurs as a separate work in the Tengyur. However, there are several indications that it once formed a single text, being combined with the Pañcakrama140. Both Mimaki et al.141 and Wedemeyer142 explain that although the Pañcakrama does describe Five Stages (krama), one of these, the second, looks to be an interpolation. It has its own separate title, “Anuttarasa􏰇dhi” and a colophon naming Śākyamitra as the author. Wedermeyer also notes that whenever Āryadeva quotes from this section in the Caryāmelāpaka-pradīpa, he uses this title. Both propose that the “original” Five Stages were the PKS itself as the first with the four remaining sections of the PK: one, and three to five. The alternative title of the PKS, having “Pi􏰀􏰁ikrama” rather than “Pi􏰀􏰁ik􏰂ta” also supports this idea. In the facsimile edition of the Pañcakrama143, all three of the largely extant versions: A, B and E include material from the PKS and the PK. Versions A and B include the end of the PKS and the start of the PK. It can be seen that the end of the PKS is treated by the scribes no differently from the end of PK section one, for example144.
                                                
140
Nāgārjuna T1802 
141
Mimaki and Tomabechi 1994: ix-x. 
142
Wedemeyer 2007: 50, n106 in particular. 
143
Mimaki and Tomabechi 1994. 
144
Mimaki and Tomabechi 1994: 45-15b5, 49-20a6 . 
52 Commentaries on PKS in India Commentaries on PKS in India Commentaries on PKS in India Commentaries on PKS in India
 
There are two commentaries providing explanation of the PKS available in the Tengyur, translated from Indian texts: a very extensive “v􏰂tti” commentary by Ratnākaraśānti (c. 1000CE145), called the Ratnāvalī146 and brief “pañjikā” explaining certain difficult points147, by Vibhuticandra (fl. c. 1200CE148). The Ratnāvalī provides a “word commentary” on the PKS, which is useful in itself for “recovering” corrupt text but it also comments extensively on the text using the “four-fold” senses. Wayman149 explains that each passage has meaning at four levels (Bentor uses more helpful labels for these four150): 1. The “invariant sense” – the literal meaning; 2. The shared sense, where the meaning is shared with the “lower” tantras or non- Buddhist tantras (Bentor calls this the “common level”); 3. The pregnant sense, where the outward application of the “doctrine of lust” is explained or the sense at the level of “conventional truth” is outlined (Bentor calls this the “hidden level”); 4. The ultimate sense, where the “union” is explained of the sense at the level of
                                                
145
Ruegg 1981: 122. 
146
Ratnākaraśānti T1826 
147
Vibhuticandra T1832 
148
Ruegg 1981: 117. 
149
Wayman 1977: 116. 
150
Bentor 2010: 91. 
53 “ultimate truth” or “Clear Light” is outlined. As can be imagined, explaining each section of the PKS using these four modes of explanation produces a very considerable text. On the other hand, the much shorter pañjikā of Vibhuticandra mainly provides more detail and background to some difficult points of the PKS, at the literal and common levels. In particular, it provides additional details for the visualization of the main deity and a series of additional deities and mantras associated with U􏰃􏰀ī􏰃acakravartī. Some of the deities can be identified with the “U􏰃􏰀ī􏰃a” deities of the SDPS151. Further work is required to identify the others. Guhyasamāja Tantra􏰄īkā of Nāgārjuna and Pradīpoddyotana of Candrakīrti Guhyasamāja Tantra􏰄īkā of Nāgārjuna and Pradīpoddyotana of Candrakīrti Guhyasamāja Tantra􏰄īkā of Nāgārjuna and Pradīpoddyotana of Candrakīrti Guhyasamāja Tantra􏰄īkā of Nāgārjuna and Pradīpoddyotana of Candrakīrti
 
Attributed to Nāgārjuna and Candrakīrti respectively, the Tantra􏰄īkā152 and the Pradīpoddyotana153 are both commentaries on the GST itself which analyse the Generation and Completion stages, As such they cover similar material to the PKS in their analyses of the Generation Stage, although there is little sign of actual quotation or reference to the PKS, as they work through the text of the GST. The Pradīpoddyotana applies the “Four Senses” explained above in the analysis of the GST and provides much background detail to the rituals briefly mentioned in
                                                
151
Skorupski 1983: 180-182, tr. 35-36. 
152
Nāgārjuna T1784 
153
Candrakīrti T1785 
54 the GST154. Sādhana of the pure yoga stage of Guhyasamāja by Tsong Sādhana of the pure yoga stage of Guhyasamāja by Tsong Sādhana of the pure yoga stage of Guhyasamāja by Tsong Sādhana of the pure yoga stage of Guhyasamāja by Tsong- – -kha kha kha kha- – -pa pa pa pa
 
This sādhana155 is an expanded version of the PKS. It has the same structure of yoga stages, as shown in Appendix A, with the same sequence of visualizations and mantras. It has some additional offerings156 at the start and more detail of the outer protection circle and the Ma􏰀􏰁ala Universe into which the Ma􏰀􏰁ala Pavilion emerges157. It is this sādhana that forms the basis for the sādhana recited by present-day Guhyasamāja practitioners of the Gelukpa School of Tibetan Buddhism158.
                                                
154
Wedemeyer 2007: 60-61. 
155
Tsong kha pa T5303 
156
Tsong kha pa T5303: 2a-2b 
157
Tsong kha pa T5303: 7a-7b 
158
Thurman 1995: 311. 
55 6. Conclusion The PKS was most likely set down during the period 800-950CE. Just as the GST itself is one of the earliest Highest Yoga Tantras, the PKS is similarly one of the earliest Higher Yoga Tantra sādhanas. Although being based on the contents of the GTS, the sādhana shows many features in common with such Yoga Tantras as the SDPS and other Yoga Tantra sādhana forms as outlined by Skorupski. Attributed to Nāgārjuna and originally being part of a single text with the PK, the PKS took on a separate existence as the ritual practice manual of the Generation stage of the Guhyasamāja Tantra. Originally showing a Yogācāra philosophical foundation, the Tibetan translators and commentators subtly “amended” this to give it a more “Madhyamaka” flavour. After the addition of further praises and the “filling out” of the ritual details by Tsong-kha-pa, the sādhana continues today, embodied in the text of the “Long Guhyasamāja Sādhana according to the oral tradition of Ganden Jangtse Monastic College”159.
                                                
159
Ganden Jangtse. 
56 Appendix A. Structure of the sādhana related to the four yogas and the three sādhana stages The first four yogas are discussed in the comments on PKS vv.51-69. The sādhana stages are discussed in the comments to v.93. Designations not found in the PKS itself, but only in commentaries, are placed in brackets. The equivalent verses from the sādhana by Tsong-kha-pa160 are also listed. Yoga stage PKS Verses Sādhana stage T5303 page numbers (yoga – rnal ‘byor) 1-50 1a-12b anuyoga - rjes su sbyor ba (also rjes su rnal 'byor) subsequent yoga 51 12b atiyoga – shin tu sbyor ba (also shin tu rnal 'byor) higher yoga 52-68 (upasādhana) near accomplishment 12b-14a 69-92 (sādhana) accomplishment mahāyoga - sbyor ba chen po (also rnal 'byor chen po) great yoga incl. consort & union 93-106 mahāsādhana great accomplishment 14a-16a (vijayama􏰀􏰁alayoga - dkyil 'khor rgyal mchog gi rnal 'byor) victorious ma􏰀􏰁ala yoga 107-197 16a-20a sūk􏰃mayoga - phra mo'i rnal 'byor (also rnal 'byor phra mo) subtle yoga (karmavijayayoga - ) victorious activities yoga 198-217 20a pp.
                                                
160
Tsong kha pa T5303 
57 Appendix B. Maṇḍala Visualizations B.1. Visualizing the thirty-two deities within the Maṇḍala Palace Verses Location Deity 27 Central Vajra-being (Ak􏰃obhya) East Vairocana South Ratnasambhava West Amitābha 28 North Amoghasiddhi South-east Moharatī (Locanā) South-west Dve􏰃aratī (Māmakī) North-west Rāgaratī (Pā􏰀􏰁aravāsinī) 29 North-east Vajraratī (Tārā) South-eastern intermediate Rūpavajrā South-western intermediate Śabdavajrā, North-western intermediate Gandhavajrā North-eastern intermediate Rasavajrā, 30 Central, in union with Ak􏰃obhya Sparśavajrā Eastern edge Maitreya and K􏰃itigarbha 31 Southern edge Vajrāpani and Khagarbha Western edge Lokeśvara and Mañjugho􏰃a [i.e. Mañjuśrī] 32 Northern edge Sarvanīvara􏰀avi􏰃kambin and Samantabhadra Eastern doorway Yamāntaka Southern doorway Aparājita Western doorway Hayagrīva 33 Northern doorway Am􏰂taku􏰀􏰁ali South-eastern corner Acala South-western corner Takkirāja North-western corner Nīlanda􏰀􏰁a 34 North-eastern corner Mahābala Below Sumbharāja 35 Above U􏰃􏰀ī􏰃acakravartī

58 
B.2. Visualizing the main deity body maṇḍala   
Verses Location Deity Syllable Colour Nature 
56 Crown Vairocana o􏰇 white form aggregate 
57 Mouth Amitābha ā􏰈 red discrimination aggregate 
58 Heart-centre Ak􏰃obhya hū􏰇 lapis lazuli consciousness aggregate 
59 Navel Ratnasambhava svā yellow feeling aggregate 
60 Both feet Amoghasiddhi hā green compositional factors 
aggregate 
Place of earth 
element Moharatī (Locanā) - - solidity 
Place of water 
element 
Dve􏰃aratī 
(Māmakī) - - fluidity 
Place of fire 
element 
Rāgaratī  
(Pā􏰀􏰁aravāsinī) - - warmth 
61 
Place of air 
element 
Vajraratī   
(Tārā) - - airiness 
Eyes K􏰃itigarbha thlī􏰇 - - 
62 
Ears Vajrapā􏰀i. o􏰇 - - 
Nose Khagarbha o􏰇 - - 
63 
Tongue Lokeśvara. o􏰇 - - 
Heart Mañjugho􏰃a  
[i.e. Mañjuśrī] hū􏰇 - - 
64 
Whole body Sarvanīvara􏰀a- 
vi􏰃kambin o􏰇 - - 
Head Maitreya mai􏰇 - - 
65 All the joints  
(of the body) Samantabhadra sa􏰇 - - 
Right hand Yamāntaka - - - 
Left hand Aparājita  - - - 
Mouth Hayagrīva  - - - 
66 
Vajra Am􏰂taku􏰀􏰁ali  - - - 
Right 
side/shoulder Acala - - - 
Left 
side/shoulder Takkirāja - - - 
67 
Right knee Nīlanda􏰀􏰁a - - - 
Left knee Mahābala - - - 
Top of head Sumbharāja - - - 
68 
Bottom of feet U􏰃􏰀ī􏰃acakravartī - - - 
59 
B.3. Dissolving the deity body maṇḍala  
Verse Aggregate Element Sense faculty Sense object 
Awarenesses or 
wisdoms and 
associated deities 
Additional 
deities (from 
commentaries) 
39 
Form 
(Vairocana) 
Earth 
(Locanā) 
Eye 
(K􏰃itigarbha) 
Visible form 
(Rūpavajrā) 
Mirror-like 
awareness 
ādarśa-jñāna 
(Maitreya,) 
Yamāntaka 
Acala 
40 
Feeling 
(Ratnasambhava) 
Water 
(Māmakī) 
Ear 
(Vajrapā􏰀i) 
Sound 
(Śabdavajrā) 
Awareness of 
equanimity 
samatā-jñāna 
Aparājita 
Takkirāja 
41 
Discrimination 
(Amitābha) 
Fire 
(Pā􏰀􏰁aravāsinī) 
Nose 
(Khagarbha) 
Smell 
(Gandhavajrā) 
Discriminatory 
awareness 
pratyavek􏰃a􏰀a- 
jñāna 
Hayagrīva, 
Nīlanda􏰀􏰁a 
42 
Compositional 
factors 
(Amoghasiddhi) 
Wind 
(Tārā) 
Tongue 
(Lokeśvara) 
Taste 
(Rasavajrā) 
Awareness of 
accomplishment 
k􏰂tya-anu􏰃􏰄hāna- 
jñāna 
(Samantabhadra) 
Am􏰂taku􏰀􏰁ali 
Mahābala 
also 
Sarvanīvara􏰀a 
-vi􏰃kambin  
and 
Sparśavajrā 
U􏰃􏰀ī􏰃acakravartī, Sumbharāja, Mañjuśrī and Ak􏰃obhya are dissolved individually, in sequence after the groups above.  
60 
B.4. Visualizing the deity consort body maṇḍala  
Verses Deity Syllable Location 
(Vairocana) o􏰇 Crown 
95 
(Amitābha) ā􏰈 Mouth 
(Ak􏰃obhya) hū􏰇 Heart-centre 
(Ratnasambhava) svā Navel 
96 
(Amoghasiddhi) hā Both feet 
Locanā - Place of earth element 
Māmakī - (water element) 
Pā􏰀􏰁aravāsinī - (fire element) 
96-97 
Tārā - (air element) 
Rūpavajrā - - 
Śabdavajrā, - - 
Gandhavajrā - - 
97 
Rasavajrā - - 
K􏰃itigarbha - Union with Rūpavajrā 
Vajrapā􏰀i - Union with Śabdavajrā, 
Khagarbha - Union with Gandhavajrā 
Lokeśvara - Union with Rasavajrā 
Vajravetālī - Right hand 
98 
Aparājitā - Left hand 
Bh􏰂ku􏰄i - Mouth 
Ekaja􏰄ā - Secret place 
99 
Viśvavajrī - Right  shoulder 
Viśvaratnā - Left shoulder 
100 
Viśvapadmā - Right knee 
Viśvakarmā - Left knee 
Akaśavajri􏰀ī - Top of head 
101 
Earth-bearing Goddess - Bottom of feet 

61 
 
B.5. Visualizing the thirty-two deities of the maṇḍala and their activities Verses Source mantra Deity Crown-deity Body colour Face colours Right hand Left hand Activity Location d. blue vajra bell red (t: white) wheel jewel 108-114 Vajradh􏰂k Ak􏰃obhya Ak􏰃obhya lapis lazuli white (t: red) lotus sword Turning the wheel of dharma and purifying all beings Cent. white wheel bell red (t: black) vajra jewel 116-119 Jinajik Vairocana Ak􏰃obhya white d. blue (t: red) white lotus sword Purifying those fallen into delusion E yellow jewel bell d. blue (t: black) vajra yellow lotus 119-122 Ratnadh􏰂k Ratnasambhava Ak􏰃obhya (yellow) white wheel sword. Purifying those abiding in a state of pride S red red lotus bell d. blue (t: black) vajra jewel 123-126 Ārolik Amitābha Ak􏰃obhya red white wheel sword Purifying those with desire W green sword bell d. blue (t: black) crossed vajra green lotus 127-130 Prajñādh􏰂k Amoghasiddhi Ak􏰃obhya green white wheel jewel Purifying those with wrong speech N 62 Verses Source mantra Deity Crown-deity Body colour Face colours Right hand Left hand Activity Location white wheel bell red (t:black) vajra jewel 131-134 Moharatī Locanā Vairocana white d. blue (t: red) white lotus sword Provides relief from the demons and sicknesses of the world SE d. blue (t: black) vajra bell red (t:white) wheel jewel 135-138 Dve􏰃aratī Māmakī Ak􏰃obhya d. blue white (t: red) purple lotus sword Provides protection for those afflicted by the terrifying great obstructing ones SW red red lotus bell d. blue (t: black) vajra jewel 139-142 Rāgaratī Pā􏰀􏰁aravāsinī Amitābha red white wheel sword Provides relief to those in great distress NW green crossed vajra bell d. blue (t: black) wheel jewel 143-146 Vajraratī Tārā Amoghasiddhi green white dark lotus (t: white lotus) sword Subduing all beings NE 63 Verses Source mantra Deity Crown-deity Body colour Face colours Right hand Left hand Activity Location mirror (vajra) (jewel) 147-148 - Rūpavajrā Vairocana white - (white lotus) (sword) - SE intermediate lute (wheel (jewel) 148-149 - Śabdavajrā Ratnasambhava yellow - (purple lotus) (sword) - SW intermediate conch (vajra) (jewel ) 150-151 - Gandhavajrā Amitābha red - (wheel) (sword) - NW intermediate vessel of flavours (wheel (jewel ) 151-152 - Rasavajrā Amoghasiddhi green - (dark lotus) (sword) - NE intermediate 153 - Sparśavajrā Same as for Ak􏰃obhya - Cent. in union mai􏰇 Maitreya - E edge 154 thlī􏰇 K􏰃itigarbha - E edge o􏰇 Vajrapā􏰀i. - S edge 155 o􏰇 Khagarbha - S edge o􏰇 Lokeśvara - W edge 156 hū􏰇 Mañjugho􏰃a [i.e. Mañjuśrī] - W edge o􏰇 Sarvanīvara􏰀a- vi􏰃kambin - N edge 156-157 sa􏰇 Samantabhadra Verses 157-158 explain: “. . . these (all have) the same crowns, colours and so forth as their Lords . . . and with hands and weapons like their respective lords and Maitreya alone holds a Cobra's saffron tree flower in the right hand.” - N edge 64 Verses Source mantra Deity Crown-deity Body colour Face colours Right hand Left hand Activity Location d. blue (t: black) staff noose red (t:white) wheel (t:vajra) bell 160-162 Yamāntak􏰂t Yamāntaka Vairocana - white (t: red) vajra (t:wheel) axe Terrifying the great obstructing ones such as Indra E doorway white vajra noose d. blue (t: black) staff bell 163-166 Prajñāntak􏰂t Aparājita Ratnasambhava white red sword axe Terrifying the obstructing ones S doorway red lotus bell d. blue (t: black) sword axe 167-170 Padmāntak􏰂t Hayagrīva Amitābha - white mace (t:pestle) noose Producing extreme fear in the obstructing ones W doorway blue vajra noose red wheel bell 171-174 Vighnāntak􏰂t Am􏰂taku􏰀􏰁ali Amoghasiddhi blue white mace (t:pestle) axe Producing extreme fear in the obstructing ones N doorway
 
65 Verses Source mantra Deity Crown-deity Body colour Face colours Right hand Left hand Activity Location d. blue (t: black) sword threatening gesture red vajra axe 175-178 Acala Acala Vairocana - white wheel noose Destroying the obstructing ones who cause diseases SE corner d. blue (t: black) vajra gesture red vajra noose 179-181 Takkirāja Takkirāja Ratnasambhava - white sword elephant goad Destroying the obstructing ones SW corner blue staff threatening gesture red (t:white) sword lotus 182-185 Nīlan- da􏰀􏰁a Nīlanda􏰀􏰁a Amitābha - white (t: red) wheel axe Overcoming dreadful calamity NW corner d. blue (t: black) staff threatening gesture red sword lotus 185-189 Mahābala Mahābala Amoghasiddhi - white wheel axe Vanquishing the dreadful 􏰁ākinīs NE corner d. blue (t: black) u􏰃􏰀ī􏰃a (gesture) red vajra threatening gesture 189-192 U􏰃􏰀ī􏰃a- cakravartī U􏰃􏰀ī􏰃a- cakravartī Ak􏰃obhya blue white lotus sword Overcoming all calamities Below d. blue (t: black) vajra threatening gesture red wheel lotus 193-197 Sumbha- rāja Sumbharāja Ak􏰃obhya - white jewel sword Pacifying all obstacles and destroying all the moving and unmoving poisons Above
 
66
 
67 Appendix C. Diagrams and plates illustrating the Sādhana

Figure 1 
11 
1. Guhyasamāja toraṇa 
161 
& Cittamaṇḍala of the Kālacakramaṇḍala 
162

Figure 2. Cittamaṇḍala of the Kālacakramaṇḍala 
163 
                                                
161
Mori 2009: 641. 
162
Mori 2009: 644. 
163
Brauen 1997: 68. 
pak􏰃a stambha ratna hārārdhahāra bakulī kramaśīr􏰃a Elevation view (Vertical surfaces) Plan view (Horizontal surfaces) kapola niryūha rajas
 
68 Figure 3. Kumbha-stambha, Mahishasur Mandapa, Mamallapuram 164

Figure 4. Toraṇa as illustrated by the model maṇḍala in Gyud Mey Tantric College 
165 
                                                
164
Brown 1971: fig. LXII.1, p.79 refers. 
165
Images courtsey of www.guhyasamaja.com 
Original Image Image with “kumbha” repositioned on top of the columns
 
69 Figure 5. Guhyasamaja Mandala 166
                                                
166
Vira and Chandra 1961: vol. 12, fig. 2 (loosleaf), reproduced with permission: (c) British Library Board (W 2758). 
 
70
 
71












Figure 6. Guhyasamaja Mandala Layout 167
                                                
167
Wayman 1977: fig. 123-124. 
 
72
 
73 Appendix D. Sanskrit and Tibetan text with correlated English translation de la Vallée Poussin 1896, Tripathi 2001. Derge T1796 Peking P2661, P4788 nama􏰈 sarvajñāya rgyud ngi pa bzhugs so
 1a   
 |rgya gar skad du|  
piN+Da bi dhi sA dha naM|168
 
 bod skad du|  
sgrub pa'i thabs mdor byas pa|169
 
 'jam dpal gzhon nur gyur ba la phyag 'tshal 
lo|
 
     
1 trailokyācāramukta􏰇 gaganasamagata􏰇 sarvabhāvasvabhāva􏰇 śuddha􏰇

mnyam gyur dngos po'i ngo bo nyid| śānta􏰇 vivikta􏰇 paramaśivamaya􏰇 yoginām eva gamyam|| |dag cing zhi la rnam dben mchog zhi rang bshin rnal 'byor ba nyid yul| durbodha􏰇 durvicāra􏰇 svaparahitatama􏰇 vyāpina􏰇 ninirmitta􏰇 vande kāya􏰇

phan khyab cing mtshan ma med| jinānā􏰇 sukhamasamasama􏰇 nirvikalpaikamūrtim|| |rgyal ba'i bde ba mnyam med mnyam sku mi rtog tshul gcigs la phyag 'tshal| I pay homage to (one) freed from the laws of the three realms, become the equal of Heaven; to the inherent nature of all things: pure, serene, detached, endowed with the supreme quiescence: the refuge of yogins indeed; to (one) unfathomable: difficult to analyse, a supreme benefactor of oneself and others; to the all-encompassing one, without cause; the embodiment of the Victorious ones: blissful, equal to the unequalled, the only being free from conceptual thought.

                                                
168 P2661: piN+Da dhi kri ta sA dha na; P4788: piN dhI kra ma sA dha naM 169 P4788: bsdus pa'i rim pa'i bsgub thabs
 
74 2 śrīmatsamājatantrasya 􏰃a􏰄ko􏰄yarthāvabodhata􏰈 |dpal ldan 'dus pa'i rgyud kyi ni|

don bsdu170 rtogs pa re bye ba'i171 phyir

pi􏰀􏰁īkramam aha􏰇 vak􏰃ye sarvasattvahitodayam| |sems can kun la phan skyed pa'i173 |

mdor bsdus bdag gis bshad par bay

In order to teach the six crores of meanings172 of the glorious collection of tantra, I will speak of the arising of a benefactor for all beings, the “Condensed Method”. 3 vikalpavāsanādo􏰃ān jagattrayavimohakān |rnam rtog bag chags nyes pa yis|

'gro ba gsum po rnam rmongs la

samabhivīk􏰃ya tān dhīmān yogatantre􏰀a śodhayet| |blo dang ldan pas legs bltas te|

rnal 'byor rgyud kyis spyod par bya

After realizing that the beings of the three realms are deluded by the problem of their tendency to discursive thought, those things the wise man should set right through yoga-tantra. 4 pañca kāmān parityajya tapobhir na ca pī􏰁ayet |'dod pa lnga ni yongs spangs nas|

dka' thub kyis ni gdung med par

sukhena dhārayed bodhi􏰇 yogatantrānusārata􏰈| |rnal 'byor rgyud kyi rjes 'brangs la|

bde bas byang chub bsgrub par bya

Having abandoned the five objects of desire, one who follows yoga-tantra ought not to suffer through penance, but should practice wisdom through bliss. 5 teneha sa􏰇varastho 'yam abhedas tu sadā vratī |des na 'di na sdom gnas yin|

rtag tu mi phyed brtul zhugs gang

kāyavākcittavajrasya sādhana􏰇 tu samārabhet| |sku gsung thugs kyi rdo rje yi|

sgrub pa dag kyang brtsam par bya

Therefore, remaining forever unwavering in this commitment, the devotee should then begin the practice of the vajra of body, speech and mind. 6 mahā􏰄avīpradeśe􏰃u phalapu􏰃pādyala􏰇k􏰂te |dgon pa chen po'i sa phyogs ni|

me tog 'bras bu sogs kyis brgyan

parvate vijane sādhya􏰇 sarvasiddhisamuccayam| |ri bo dben pa dag tu ni|

dngos grub thams cad bsdus pa bsgrub

In such places as great forests, adorned with fruits, flowers and so on, on a mountain or in a solitary place, the attainment of all the spiritual accomplishments should be achieved. 7 m􏰂dvāsanasamāsīna􏰈174 sattvaparya􏰀kasa􏰇sthita􏰈 |'jam pa'i stan la 'dug nas ni|

sems dpa'i skyil krung legs gnas te

dve􏰃avajrasamādhista􏰈 sthānarak􏰃ā􏰇 vi[1 B]cintayet| |zhe sdang rdo rje'i ting 'dzin gnas|

gnas bsrung ba ni bsams par bya

After sitting on a soft seat and remaining in the half- lotus posture, abiding in the Anger-vajra concentration, one should visualize the local guardian spirits.

                                                
170 D: mdor bsdus 171 hyp.; D & P rtogs par bya ba'i 172 Tib: For the understanding 173 D: bskyed pa'i 174 dVP: śraddhāsanasamāsīna􏰈
 
75 8 daśakrodhān samuts􏰂jya jvālābhāsurabhī􏰃a􏰀ān |'bar ba'i 'od 'phro 'jigs par byed|

nyi ma la gnas hUM las byung

hū􏰇kārodbhūtabhānusthān pratyālī􏰁hapade sthitān| |g.yon brkyang ba yi gnas pas gnas|

khro bcu ni sbro bar bya

From a “hū􏰇” syllable standing on a sun-disc, the ten wrathful ones come forth, terrifying with blazing flames. They stand in a posture with left leg extended175. 9 daśadigma􏰀􏰁alāgre tu sa􏰇cintyaiva􏰇 yathākramam |phyogs bcu'i dkyil 'khor rtse mo ni|

rim pa bzhin du bsam par bya

sarvavighnavināśārtha􏰇 sumbham ājñāya kīlayet| |bgegs kun rnam par gzhig pa'i phyir|

gnod mdzes bka' stsal phur bus gdab

After visualizing each in order above the wheel in the ten directions, and for the purpose of destroying all the obstructing ones, one should command Sumbharāja to transfix (them all).

     
o􏰇 su􏰇bha nisu􏰇bha hū􏰇 g􏰂h􏰀a g􏰂h􏰀a hū􏰇 g􏰂h􏰀āpaya g􏰂h􏰀āpaya hū􏰇

gRih+Na hUM gRih+Na pa ya gRih+Na pa ya hUM| ānaya ho bhagavan vidyārāja hū􏰇 pha􏰄|| |A na ya ho bha ga bAn bidyA rA dza hUM phaT| o􏰇 Harm! Kill! hū􏰇 Seize! Seize! hū􏰇 Seize and hold! Seize and hold! hū􏰇 Move! ho, O Blessed one, O Lord of knowledge, hū􏰇 pha􏰄

     
10 anena krodharūpe􏰀a āk􏰂􏰃yaiva􏰇 vināyakān |khro bo'i gzugs can 'di yis ni|

bgegs kyi dbang po nyid bkug nas

kīlayed vidhivat sarvān prayoge􏰀a tu buddhimān| |blo dang ldan pas sbyor ba yis| |cho ga bzhin du phur bus gdab| Once the obstructing ones have been removed in this way by him in wrathful guise, the wise person thus causes them all to be transfixed by this practice: 11 vajrām􏰂tamahārāja􏰇 vajrakīla􏰇 vibhāvayet |rdo rje bdud rtsi rgyal po che|

ut+pala sngon po 'dab ma'i mdog

nīlotpaladalaśyāma􏰇 jvālāmālākulaprabham| |'bar phred 'khrigs pa'i 'od ldan pa|

rdo rje phur bu rnam par bsgom

One should visualize Vajra-am􏰂ta, the great king, as Vajra-dagger, dark blue as night-lotus petals, alight with masses of garlands of flames. 12 nābhideśādadhobhāga􏰇 śūlākāra􏰇 vibhāvayet |lte pa'i phyogs nas smad kyi cha|

 2a 
 |rtse mo lta bur rnam par bsam| 
(and) should imagine the lower part of his body from the region of the navel (down) in the form of a stake and the upper part in wrathful guise with three faces
                                                
175 i.e. also with right drawn back, like an archer
 
76 ūrdhva􏰇 krodhāk􏰂ti􏰇 caiva trimukhākāra􏰃a􏰁bhujam| |stod mi khro bo'i dbyibs can te|

zhal gsum phyag drug lta bur bsgom

and six arms. 13 adho vighnaga􏰀ān vīk􏰃ya tān mantra􏰇 samudāharan |de yi gsang sngags legs brjod la|

bgegs kyi tshogs la 'og gzigs pas

nikhaned vajrakīla􏰇 tu vighnadehe􏰃u niścalam| |rdo rje phur bu des btab na|

bgegs kyi lus ni mi gyo 'gyur

After seeing the hordes of obstructing ones below and proclaiming the mantra176 to them, one should fix Vajra-dagger thus, unmoving, in the bodies of the obstructing ones:

     
o􏰇 gha gha ghātaya ghātaya sarvadu􏰃􏰄ān pha􏰄 pha􏰄 |oM gha gha ghA ta ya ghA ta ya| sar+ba duSh+TAM phaT phaT| o􏰇 striking striking stab stab all the evil ones pha􏰄 pha􏰄 kīlaya kīlaya sarvapāpān pha􏰄 pha􏰄 hū􏰇 hū􏰇 hū􏰇 vajrakīla vajradhara kI la ya kI la ya| sar+ba pA paM phaT phaT hUM hUM hUM| badzra kI la ya| badzra dha ro impale impale all the wicked ones pha􏰄 pha􏰄 hū􏰇 hū􏰇 hū􏰇 vajra-dagger vajra-holder ājñāpayati sarvavighnā[2 A]nā􏰇 kāyavākcittavajra􏰇 kīlaya hū􏰇 hū􏰇 hū􏰇 pha􏰄| Adz+nyA pa ya ti| sar+ba bi gh+nAn| kA ya wAk tsi t+ta| badzra kI la ya hUM hUM hUM phaT phaT| command the vajra of body, speech and mind of all the obstructors impale hū􏰇 hū􏰇 hū􏰇 pha􏰄177 pha􏰄
     
14 vajramudgarahasta􏰇 ca sumbharāja􏰇 vibhāvayet| |rdo rje tho ba phyag bsnams pa'i|

gnod mdzes rgyal po rnam par bsam

Then visualize Sumbharāja with the vajra-hammer in his hand

                                                
176 Tib: secret mantra 177 Tib. only
 
77 15 vajravahni􏰇 samantācca vispharanta􏰇 vicintya vai |rdo rje me yis kun tu ni|

rnam par 'phro bas nges par bsgom

du􏰃􏰄ān pralāpitā􏰇ścinted dahyamānānitastata􏰈| |gdug pa tshig pa phan tshun du|

bros par gyur par rnam par bsam

and after thinking of vajras of fire indeed spreading in all directions, imagine the evil ones, with the wailing of lamentations, being burned up all about178. 16 daśadik kīlayitvā tu adha ūrdhvam adhi􏰃ya ca |phyogs bcur bus bus btab nas ni|

steng 'og yang dag byin gyis brlab

bhāvayet paramārthena ni􏰈svabhāvabhavatrayam| |dam pa'i don du dngos po rnams|

srid gsum dngos po med par bsgom

After transfixing those in the ten directions and overcoming those above and below, one should realize by way of ultimate truth (that) the three realms are without self-nature.179. 17 abhāve bhāvanābhāvo180 bhāvanā naiva bhāvanā |dngos po med la bsgom pa'i dngos|

bsgom par bya ba bsgom pa min

iti bhāvo na bhāva􏰈 syād bhāvanā nopalabhyate|181 |de ltar dngos po dngos med pas|

bsgom pa dmigs su med pa'o

In non-existence, (there is) no existence of contemplation, so contemplation is not contemplation. Therefore existence must be non- existent: (even) contemplation cannot be found. 18 anayā gāthayā śūnya􏰇 dhyātvā sthiracarātmakam |tshigs bcad 'di yis rgyu mi rgyu'i|

bdag nyid can rnams stong par bsgom

anena vidhiyogena jñānabhūmir adhi􏰃yate| |cho ga'i sbyor ba 'di yis ni|

ye shes sa gzhir byin gyis brlab

By this verse, after thinking that what is empty no longer has the nature of being unchanging, with the practice of this method, the Wisdom Stage will be attained. 19 ākāśadhātumadhyastha􏰇 bhāvayed vāyuma􏰀􏰁alam |nam mkha' dbyings kyi dbus gnas par|

hUM gnyis sa bon yaM las byung

dvihū􏰇ya􏰇bījani􏰃panna􏰇 vajradvayasamāyutam| |rdo rje gnyis dang yang dag ldan|

rlung gi dkyil 'khor bsgom par bya

In the midst of the sphere of space, one should bring forth a Wind Ma􏰀􏰁ala with two “hū􏰇” and a “ya􏰇” syllables and having two vajras. 20 agnima􏰀􏰁alaka􏰇 cāpi tasyopari vibhāvayet |hUM gnyis sa bon raM las byung|

rdo rje gnyis dang yang dag ldan

dvihū􏰇ra􏰇bījani􏰃panna􏰇 vajradvayasama􏰆kitam| |me yi dkyil 'khor nyid kyang ni|

de yi steng du rnam par bsam

And also, above that, imagine a Fire Ma􏰀􏰁ala with two “hū􏰇” and a “ra􏰇” syllables, marked with two vajras in the same way.

                                                
178 Tib: on fire, running away here and there 179 Tib: everything in the three realms is without self-nature 180 taken as abhāve bhāvanā-abhāva􏰈; dVP: abhāvabhāvanā bhāvo 181 GST 2.3
 
78 21 vārima􏰀􏰁alaka􏰇 cāpi tasyopari vibhāvayet |hUM gnyis sa bon baM las byung|

rdo rje gnyis dang yang dag ldan

dvihū􏰇va􏰇bījani􏰃panna􏰇 vajradvayasamāyutam| |chu yi dkyil 'khor nyid kyang ni|

de yi steng du rnam par bsam

And also, above that, imagine a Water Ma􏰀􏰁ala with two “hū􏰇” and a “va􏰇” syllables and having two vajras. 22 p􏰂thivīma􏰀􏰁alaka􏰇 cāpi tasyopari vibhāvayet |hUM gnyis sa bon laM las byung|

rdo rje gnyis dang yang dag ldan

dvihū􏰇la􏰇bījani􏰃panna􏰇 vajradva[2 B]yasamanvitam| |sa yi dkyil 'khor nyid dang ni|

And also, above that, imagine an Earth Ma􏰀􏰁ala with two “hū􏰇” and a “la􏰇” syllables and having two vajras. 23 caturma􏰀􏰁alasa􏰇hāre vajrabhūbhāgama􏰀􏰁alam |dkyil 'khor bzhi po yang dag bsdu|

rdo rje sa yi dkyil 'khor la

tatra bhrū􏰇kārani􏰃panna􏰇 kū􏰄āgāra􏰇 vibhāvayet| |der ni bhrUM las byung ba yi|

gzhal yas khang ni rnam par bsgom

In the combination of the four ma􏰀􏰁alas, there is the Ma􏰀􏰁ala of the Vajra Ground. Therefore, one should visualize a most excellent dwelling come forth from the syllable “bhrū􏰇”, 24 caturaśra􏰇 caturdvāra􏰇 catustora􏰀aśobhitam |rta babs bzhi yis mdzes byas pa|

thig bzhi dang ni yang dag ldan

catu􏰈sūtrasamāyukta􏰇 a􏰃􏰄astambhopaśobhitam| |ka ba brgyad kyis yang dag mdzes|

dra ba dra ba phyed pa dang

adorned with four corners, four doors and four gateways182, furnished with four lines and decorated with eight pillars, 25 hārārdhahāraracita􏰇 ma􏰀ivajrārdhacandrakam |rdo rje nor bu zla phyed brgyan|

grwa yi mtshams ni thams cad dang

khacita􏰇vajraratnais tu dvāraniryūhasa􏰇dhi􏰃u| |sgo dang sgo khyud mtshams rnams su|

rdo rje rin chen rnams kyis spras

with nets and half-nets183 of half-moon vajra jewels and studded with vajra-jewels at the junction of the gateways and pediments,

                                                
182 Tib: adorned with four porticos 183 Skt. only. Tib. equivalent at end of previous verse
 
79 26 kumbhastambhamahāvajra􏰇 kramaśīr􏰃astu pak􏰃i􏰀ī184 |bum pa ka ba rdo rje che|

bre la phreng bar rim bzhin gnas

gha􏰀􏰄āpatākasa􏰇śobha􏰇 cāmarādivibhū􏰃itam|186 |ba dan dril bus mdzes byas la|

rnga yab sogs kyis rnam par brgyan

(and) great vajra columns (with) pot-shaped capitals and the coping of the walls and the sides (of the entrance vestibules)185 adorned with bells and banners and decorated with yak-tails and so on. 27 madhyama􏰀􏰁alake dhyāyād ātmāna􏰇 mudrayā yutam |bdag nyid phyag rgyar ldan pa ni|

zhal gsum phyag drug rnam pa can

trimukha􏰇 􏰃a􏰁bhujākāram indranīlasamaprabham| |in+dra nI la'i 'od mnyam pa|

dkyil 'khor dbus su bsgom par bya

In the centre of the ma􏰀􏰁ala, one should visualize oneself as a form with three faces and six arms, united with one's consort, shining as bright as sapphire. 28 śrīvairocanaratnau ca amitābhaś ca karmarā􏰄 |rnam snang mdzad dang rin chen dang|

'od dpag med dang las kyi rgyal

pūrvādidik􏰃u sa􏰇cintyās trimukhākāra􏰃a􏰁bhujā􏰈| |zhal gsum phyag drug lta bur ni|

shar la sogs pa'i phyogs su bsam

In the east and then in each quarter in turn, both venerable Vairocana and the Jewel (one)187, Amitābha and Karma188 should be imagined as forms with three faces and six arms. 29 moharatyādikā devyas trimukhākāra􏰃a􏰁bhujā􏰈 |gti mug dga' sogs lha mo rnams|

zhal gsum phyag drug rnam pa can

āgneyī􏰇 diśam ārabhya sa􏰇niveśyā yathākramam| |me yi phyogs brtsams nas su|

rim pa ji bzhin nges par dgod

Beginning with the south-east direction, Moharatī and the other goddesses should be placed in order, as forms with three faces and six arms. 30 rūpavajrādikās tadvad bāhyako􏰀acatu􏰃􏰄aye |de ba zhin gzugs rdo rje la sogs|

phyi yi mtshams ni rnam pa bzhir

sthitaiva sparśavajrā tu vajrasattvasamāyutā| |reg bya rdo rje nyid kyang ni|

rdo rje sems dpa' dang ldan gnas

Likewise Rūpavajrā and the others in the four outer corners, and, indeed, Sparśavajrā in union with the vajra-being. 31 pa􏰄􏰄ikāyā􏰇 nyaset pūrve maitreya􏰇 k􏰃itigarbhakam |byams pa sa yi snying po dag|

shar gyi snam bur dgod par bya

va[3 A]jrapā􏰀i􏰇 khagarbha􏰇 ca nyased dak􏰃i􏰀ato vratī| |phyag na rdo rje mkha' snying po|

brtul zhugs can kyis lho ru dgod

The devotee should set in the border, in the east, Maitreya and K􏰃itigarbha and in the south, Vajrāpani and Khagarbha,

                                                
184 dVP: krayaśīr􏰃astu yak􏰃i􏰀ī 185 Tib: (and) placed in turn in a row on the top of the walls 186 See p.30 for an explanantion of the architectural vocabulary employed in verses 24-26 187 i.e. Ratnasambhava 188 i.e. Amoghasiddhi
 
80 32 lokeśa􏰇 mañjugho􏰃a􏰇 ca paścimāyā􏰇 nyaset puna􏰈 |'jig rten dbang phyug 'jam pa'i dbyangs|

nub tu yang ni dgod par bya

sarvāvara􏰀avi􏰃kambhi􏰇 samantabhadram uttare| |sgrib pa thams cad rnam sel dang|

kun tu bzang po byang phyogs su

Moreover, set in the west Lokeśvara and Mañjugho􏰃a189 and in the north, Sarvanīvara􏰀avi􏰃kambin and Samantabhadra, 33 yamāntakaś ca prāgdvāre dak􏰃i􏰀e tvaparājita􏰈 |gshin rje gshed ni shar gyi sgor|

gzhan gyis mi thub lho phyogs su

paścime tu hayagrīva uttare 'm􏰂taku􏰀􏰁ali􏰈| |nub phyogs su ni rta mgrin te|

bdud rtsi 'khyil ba byang du'o

and in the eastern doorway, Yamāntaka, in the south, Aparājita, in the west, Hayagrīva and in the north, Am􏰂taku􏰀􏰁ali. 34 acala􏰃 􏰄akkirājaś190 ca nīlanda􏰀􏰁o mahābala􏰈 |mi g.yo 'dod pa'i rgyal po dang|

dbyug sngon dang ni stobs po che

pūrvādiko􏰀am ārabhya pravicintyā yathāyatham| |shar lho mtshams sogs nas brtsams te|

rim pa ji bzhin bsgom par bya

Beginning with the eastern corner and so on, Acala, Takkirāja, Nīlanda􏰀􏰁a and Mahābala should be imagined in the proper order. 35 sumbharājamahākrodham adhastāt pravicintayet |gnod mdzes rgyal po khro bo che|

de yi 'og tu rnam par bsam

u􏰃􏰀ī􏰃acakravartī ca pravicintyas tathopari| |gtsug tor 'khor los sgyur rgyal yang|

de bzhin steng du rnam par bsgom

Imagine Sumbharāja, greatly wrathful, below and U􏰃􏰀ī􏰃acakravartī, in the same manner, above. 36 dhyātvaivam adhimuktyā vai ma􏰀􏰁aleyān yathāvidhi |cho ga ji bzhin dkyil 'khor pa|

de ltar lhag par mos bsams nas

puna􏰈 sampu􏰄ayogena svakāye tān praveśayat| |slar yang kha sbyar sbyor ba yis|

rang gi lus la de rnam gzhug

After thinking thus and from great faith in the ma􏰀􏰁ala-beings, it is fit one should cause them to enter into one's own body by the practice of complete union. 37 kāyacakragatān buddhān sa􏰇cintyaiva yathāyatham |lus kyi 'khor lo rdzogs sangs rgyas|

rim pa ji bzhin yang dag bsam

pāramārthikacakre􏰀a tathatāyā􏰇 praveśayet| |don dam pa yi rdo rje yis|

de bzhin nyid la gzhug bya bas

Having considered the Buddhas situated in the body- wheel191, each in turn, one should bring them into (their) true state with the wheel192 of ultimate reality.

 3b   
                                                
189 i.e. Mañjuśrī 190 dVP: 􏰄arkvirājaś 191 i.e. the body ma􏰀􏰁ala 192 Tib: vajra
 
81 38 sārayet tāthāgata􏰇 vyūha􏰇 sutarā􏰇 vidhim āpnuyāt |de bzhin gshegs pa'i tshogs bsar na|

dngos grub rab mchog thob par 'gyur

asyārtho vajramālāyā􏰇 vi􏰃􏰄􏰂to visphu􏰄a􏰇 yathā| |'di don rdo rje phreng ba las|

gsal bar ji bzhin rnam phye ste

One should manifest the form of the Tāthāgata (and) obtain the highest attainments, just as the meaning of this is made clear at length in the “Vajramālā”. 39 rūpaskandhagatādarśo bhūdhātur nayanendriyam |gzugs phung rtog dang me long dang|

sa khams mig gi dbang po dang

rūpa􏰇 ca pañcama􏰇 yāti krodhadvayasamanvitam193|

gzugs dang rnam lngar gyur pa ste
khro bo gnyis dang yang dag ldan

The form aggregate, the mirror-like (awareness), the earth element, the eye faculty and form: these five things become completely joined with the two wrathful ones. 40 vedanāskandhasamatā adbhātu􏰈 śrava􏰀e[3 B]ndriyam |tshor ba'i phung po mnyam nyid dang|

chu khams rna ba'i dbang po dang

śabdaś ca pañcama􏰇 yāti krodhadvayasamanvitam| |sgra dang rnam lngar gyur pa ste|

khro bo gnyis dang yang dag ldan

The feeling aggregate, (the awareness of) equanimity, the water element, the ear faculty and sound: these five things become completely joined with the two wrathful ones. 41 sa􏰇jñā ca pratyavek􏰃a􏰀ya􏰇 hutabhug nāsikendriyam |'du shes so sor rtog pa dang|

byin za sna yi dbang po dang

gandhaś ca pañcama􏰇 yāti krodhadvayasamanvitam| |dri dang rnam lngar gyur pa ste|

khro bo gnyis dang yang dag ldan

The discrimination (aggregate), the discriminatory (awareness), the fire element, the nose faculty and smell: these five things become completely joined with the two wrathful ones. 42 sa􏰇skāra􏰈 k􏰂tyānu􏰃􏰄hāna􏰇 māruto rasanendriyam |'du byed bya ba grub pa dang|

rlung khams lce yi dbang po dang

rasaś ca pañcama􏰇 yāti krodhadvayasamanvitam| |ro dang rnam lngar gyur pa ste|

khro bo gnyis dang yang dag ldan

The compositional factors (aggregate), the (awareness of) accomplishment, the wind element, the tongue faculty and taste: these five things become completely joined with the two wrathful ones. 43 ūrdhvādha􏰈krodhasa􏰇yukta􏰇 prak􏰂tyābhāsam eva ca |steng 'og khro bo shin tu bcas|

rang bzhin gyis ni snang ba nyid

vijñānaskandham āyāti vijñāna􏰇 ca prabhāsvaram| |rnam shes phung por zhugs pa ste|

rnam shes kyang ni 'od gsal ba'o

The wrathful ones above and below, being combined, the fundamental appearance (of reality) and the aggregate of consciousness become (just) consciousness and (then) clear light,

                                                
193 dVP: krodhamaitreyasa􏰇yutam
 
82 44 nirvā􏰀a􏰇194 sarvaśūnya􏰇 ca dharmakāyaś ca gadyate |mya ngan 'das bcas kun stong dang|

chos kyi skur yang bshad pa yin

d􏰂􏰁hīkara􏰀ahetutvān mantram etad udāharet| |brtan par bya ba'i don du ni|

gsang sngags 'di ni rjod par bya

the “all-empty” Nirva􏰀a, explained as the Dharmakāya. In order for this to become firmly established, one should recite this mantra195:

     
o􏰇 śūnyatājñānavajrasvabhāvātmako'ham| |oM shU nya tA dz+nya na badzra swa bhA wa At+ma ko&haM| o􏰇 I am of the nature of the vajra of wisdom of emptiness.
     
45 paramārthama􏰀􏰁ala􏰇 hy etam nirābhāsam alak􏰃a􏰀am |'di ni don dam dkyil 'khor te|

snang ba med cing mtshan nyid med

paramārthasatyanāmāpi sarvatathāgatālaya􏰈| |don dam bden pa zhes bya ba|

de bzhin gshegs pa kun gyi gnas

The ultimate nature of this ma􏰀􏰁ala is without appearance and without characteristics. It is rightly called “ultimate nature” and is the abode of all the Tathagatas. 46 prabhāsvarapravi􏰃􏰄asya vyutthāna􏰇 ca pradarśyate |'od gsal bar ni rab zhugs nas|

ldang ba yang ni bstan par bya

mantramūrtaprayoge􏰀a devatālambana􏰇 prati| |sngags kyi sku yi sbyor ba yis|

lha yi gzugs la dmigs par 'gyur

The arising of the one absorbed into the clear light is made apparent on account of the establishment of the deity by the practice of the embodiment of the mantra. 47 ākāśadhātumadhyastha􏰇 bhāvayet sūryama􏰀􏰁alam |nam mkha' dbyings kyi dbus gnas par|

nyi ma'i dkyil 'khor bsgom par bya

tasyopari punar mantrī candrabimba􏰇 vibhāvayet| |sngags pas de yi steng du yang|

zla ba'i dkyil 'khor rnam par bsam

In the midst of the sphere of space, one should bring forth a sun-disc, (and) above that, moreover, the mantrin should visualize a moon-disc. 48 tatra cā􏰃􏰄adala􏰇 padma􏰇 raktavar􏰀a􏰇 vibhāvayet |der ni pad+ma 'dab ma brgyad|

kha dog dmar po bsgom par bya

padmo[4 A]pari mahāmantrī tryak􏰃ara􏰇 bhāvayet puna􏰈| |pad+ma'i steng du sngags chen po|

yi ge gsum ni de nas bsam

There one should visualize a red-coloured lotus with eight petals and moreover, above the lotus, one should bring forth the three-syllable Great Mantra.

                                                
194 dVP: sanirvā􏰀a􏰇 195 Tib: secret mantra
 
83 49 mantra􏰇 padma􏰇 tathā sūrya􏰇 pravi􏰃􏰄a􏰇 candrama􏰀􏰁ale

sngags dang pad+ma nyi ma dag
zla ba'i dkyil 'khor la zhugs pas

candrama􏰀􏰁ala􏰇 āpūrna􏰇 bodhicitta􏰇 vibhāvayet| |zla ba'i dkyil 'khor kun rdzogs 'gyur|

byang chub sems su rnam par brtag

The mantra, the lotus and also the sun (disc) merge196 into the moon-disc and one should visualize the moon-disc filled with bodhicitta. 50 sthāvara􏰇 ja􏰆gama􏰇 sarva􏰇 tatraiva pravicintayet |rgyu dang mi rgyu thams cad kyang |

de nyid du ni rnam bsam zhing

d􏰂􏰁hīkara􏰀ahetutvān mantram etad udhāret| |brtan par bya ba'i don du ni|

gsang sngags 'di ni brjod par bya

One should think of all (that is) inanimate and animate to be just the same. In order for this to become firmly established, one should recite this mantra197:

     
o􏰇 dharmadhātusvabhāvātmako'ham| |oM dharma dhA tu swa bhA wa At+ma ko&haM| o􏰇 I am of the nature of the dharmadhātu.
     
51 yogam eva􏰇 samālambya anuyoga􏰇 samācaret |de ltar sbyor ba dmigs nas su|
 4a 
 |rjes su sbyor ba brtsam par bya| 
punaś ca tryak􏰃ara􏰇 yogī candramadhye vicintayet| |rnal 'byor pa yis yig gsum yang|

zla ba'i dbus su rnam par bsam

After taking up the yoga198 in this way, one should practice the “subsequent yoga”. The yogin should imagine again the three syllables in the centre of the moon (disc). 52 tatas tryak􏰃arasambhūta􏰇 sitakundendusannibham |de nas yig gsum las byung ba|

kun da zla ba dkar dang mtshungs

ādinātha􏰇 vicintyātha atiyoga􏰇 samārabhet| |dang po mgon po bsams nas kyang|

shin tu sbyor ba yang dag brtsam

Then, after visualizing the Primordial Lord199 resembling a jasmine-white moon, arising from the three syllables, one should practice the “higher yoga”200. 53 ak􏰃obhyānupraveśena trimukha􏰇 􏰃a􏰁bhujojjvalam |mi bskyod pa ni rjes zhugs pas|

zhal gsum phyag drug 'bar ba dang

By entering into (the form) of Ak􏰃obhya, one should visualize a blazing vajra-being with three faces and

                                                
196 lit. enter 197 Tib: secret mantra 198 “yoga” is left untranslated here as it represents the first of the four yogas: yoga, ati-yoga, anu-yoga and mahā-yoga 199 i.e. the Ādibuddha 200 “higher yoga” is preferred over “highest yoga”, since “mahāyoga” follows “atiyoga” and so is not “highest” in this case
 
84 indranīlaprabha􏰇 dīpta􏰇 vajrasattva􏰇 vibhāvayet| |in+dra nI la'i 'od mnyam pa'i|

rdo rje sems dpa' rnam par bskom

six arms, blazing with sapphire brilliance201. 54 vajra􏰇 cakra􏰇 tathā padma􏰇 savyahaste􏰃u bhāvayet |rdo rje 'khor lo pad+ma ni|

g.yas pa'I phyag tu rnam par bsam

gha􏰀􏰄ā􏰇 ratna􏰇 tathā kha􏰁ga􏰇 vāmahaste􏰃u bhāvayet| |dril bu rin chen ral gri ni|

g.yon pa.i phyag tu bsam par bya

One should visualize a vajra, wheel and lotus in the right hands and a bell, jewel and sword in the left hands. 55 tato nyāsa􏰇 prakurvīta skandhādīnā􏰇 vibhāgavit |de nas phung po la sogs pa'i|

dbye ba shes pas snang mdzad sogs

vairocanādisumbhānta􏰇 bījanyāsena tattvata􏰈 | |gnod mdzes bar du sa bon gyis|

dgod pas yang dag nyid du dgod

Then, knowing the distinctions of (their) elements and so on, one should undertake (their) laying out, from Vairocana to Sumbha (raja), by exact placement of (their) syllables. 56 vairocanīyabīja􏰇 tu o􏰇kāra􏰇 śuklavar􏰀akam |rnam snang mdzad kyi sa bon ni|

kha dog dkar po yi ge oM

rūpaskandhasvabhāve[4 B]na nyasen mūrdhani mantravit| |gzugs phung ngo bo nyid kyis ni|

sngags shes pas ni spyi bor dgod

Knowing the mantra, one should place on the crown of the head the syllable of Vairocana: an “o􏰇” syllable, white in colour, with the nature of the form aggregate. 57 ā􏰈kāram amitābhasya sa􏰇jñāskandhasvabhāvakam |AH ni mgon po 'od dpag med|

'du shes phung po'i ngo bo nyid

raktavar􏰀a􏰇 mukhe dhyātvā vāgaiśvaryam avāpnuyāt| |mdog dmar khal bsams nas ni|

nag ni dbang phyug nyid thob 'gyur

After imagining at the mouth the syllable of Amitābha: an “ā􏰈” syllable, red in colour, with the nature of the discrimination aggregate, one should attain (the state of) the Lord of Speech. 58 ak􏰃obhyasya tu hū􏰇kāra􏰇 rājāvartakasuprabham |mi bskyod pa yi yi ge hUM|

rab tu bzang po'i mthing shun mdog

vinyased dh􏰂daye mantrī vijñānaskandharūpata􏰈| |rnam shes phung po'i ngo bo nyid|

sngags pas snying gar rnam par dgod

The mantrin should place at the heart-centre the syllable of Ak􏰃obhya: a “hū􏰇” syllable, resplendent, having (the colour of) lapis lazuli, with the nature of the consciousness aggregate. 59 svākāra􏰇 ratnanāthasya vedanāskandharūpata􏰈 |rin chen mgon po'i yi ge swA|

tshor ba'i phung po'i ngo bo nyid

pītavar􏰀a􏰇 nyasen nābhau vedanāśuddhihetukam| |tshor ba dag gi rgyu can ni|

kha dog ser po lte bar dgod

Caused by pure knowledge, one should place at the navel the syllable of the jewel-protector202: a “svā” syllable, yellow in colour, with the nature of the aggregate of feeling.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
201 Tib: shining as bright as sapphire 202 i.e. Ratnasambhava
 
85 60 pādadvaye tu hākāra􏰇 sa􏰇skāraskandhabhāvata􏰈 |rkang pa gnyis la yi ge hA|

'du byed phung po'i ngo bo nyid

haritābha􏰇 nyasen mantrī karmanāthasya tattvata􏰈| |las kyi mgon po de nyid ni|

sngags pas kha dog ljang gur dgod

The mantrin should place exactly at both feet the syllable of the karma-protector203: a “hā” syllable, green in appearance, with the nature of the compositional factors aggregate. 61 moharatyādikair mantrī p􏰂thivyādīn praveśayet |gti mug dga' sogs sngags kyis ni|

sa la sogs la rab tu gzhug

kharatva􏰇 dravatā au􏰃􏰀yam īr􏰀atva􏰇 ca te kramāt| |sra dang gsher dang dro ba dang|

rlung sogs der ni rim pa bzhin

With Moharatī etc, the mantrin should place on them the earth (element) and so forth: that with solidity204, that with fluidity205, that with warmth206 and that with airiness207 respectively. 62 thlī􏰇kāra􏰇 cak􏰃u􏰃i nyasya k􏰃itigarbha􏰇 vibhāvayet |th+liM mig tu bkod nas ni|

sa yi snying po rnam par bsgom

o􏰇kāra􏰇 kar􏰀ayor nyasya vajrapā􏰀i􏰇 vibhāvayet| |oM ni rna ba dag la dgod|

phyag na rdo rje bsgom par bya

After placing the syllable “thlī􏰇” at the eyes, one should visualize K􏰃itigarbha (and) after placing the syllable “o􏰇” at both ears, one should visualize Vajrapā􏰀i. 63 o􏰇kāra􏰇 vinyased ghrā􏰀e khagarbha􏰇 tu vibhāvayet |oM ni sna la rab bkod de|

nam mkha'i snying po rab tu bsgom

o􏰇kāra􏰇 rasane dhyātvā lokeśa􏰇 ca vikalpayet| |oM ni lce la bkod nas ni|

'jig rten dbang po brtag par bya

One should place at the nose the syllable “o􏰇” and then visualize Khagarbha. After thinking of the syllable “o􏰇” at the tongue, one should imagine Lokeśvara. 64 hū􏰇kāra􏰇 manasi dhyātvā mañjugho􏰃a􏰇 prabhāvayet |yid la hUM ni bsams nas su|

'jam pa'i dbyangs ni rab tu bsgom

o􏰇kāra􏰇210 sarvakāye ca dhyātvā vi􏰃kambhi􏰀a􏰇 smaret| |yi ge oM ni lus kun la|

bsgoms nas sgrib sel dran par bya

After thinking of the syllable “hū􏰇” at (the seat of) the mind208, one should bring forth Mañjugho􏰃a209 and after thinking of the syllable “o􏰇” on the whole body, one should think of Sarvanīvara􏰀avi􏰃kambin.

yi ge maiM ni rtsar bzhag ste

65 mai􏰇[5 A]kāre􏰀a śira􏰈sa􏰇stha􏰇211 maitreya􏰇 parikalpayet 4b With the syllable “mai􏰇” placed at the head, one should imagine Maitreya (and) so much as “sa􏰇”s

                                                
203 i.e. Amoghasiddhi 204 i.e. earth 205 i.e. water 206 i.e. fire 207 i.e. air 208 i.e. the heart 209 i.e. Mañjuśrī 210 dVP: hū􏰇kāra􏰇 211 dVP: śirāsa􏰇stha􏰇
 
86

byams pa nyid du yongs su brtag

bhadra􏰇 sa􏰇 antato212 dhyātvā sarvasa􏰇dhi􏰃u sa􏰇nyaset| |tshigs kun la ni saM bkod de|

kun tu bzang po bsam par bya

have been visualized, (so) should Samantabhadra be visualized on all the joints (of the body). 66 yamāntaka􏰈 savyabhuje apasavye 'parājita􏰈 |lag pa g.yas par gshin rje gshed|

g.yon par gzhan gyis mi thub pa

hayagrīvo mukhe bhāvyo vajre213 cām􏰂taku􏰀􏰁ali􏰈| |rta mgrin kha la bsam par bya|

rdo rje la ni bdud rtsi 'khyil

There should be Yamāntaka on the right hand and on the left one, Aparājita; Hayagrīva at the mouth and at the vajra, Am􏰂taku􏰀􏰁ali; 67 acala􏰇 dak􏰃i􏰀e bhāge vāme ca 􏰄arkvirājakam |dpung pa g.yas par mi g.yo mgon|

g.yon par 'dod pa'i rgyal bo'o

jānau ca dak􏰃ine cinten nīlada􏰀􏰁a􏰇 mahojjvalam| |pus mo g.yas par bsam pa ni|

dbyug pa sngon po cher 'bar ba

Acala on the right side214, on the left (side)215, 􏰅akkirāja and at the right knee, one should imagine Nīlada􏰀􏰁a, extremely bright; 68 vāmajānau mahābala􏰇 mūrdhni co􏰃􏰀ī􏰃avajri􏰀am |pus mo g.yon par stobs po che|

spyi bor gtsug tor 'khor los sgyur

pādāntadvayavinyasta􏰇 sumbharāja􏰇 vicintayet| |gnod mdzes rgyal po bsam pa ni|

rkang pa gnyis la dgod par bya

at the left knee, Mahābala and on the top of the head, U􏰃􏰀ī􏰃acakravartī. One should imagine a Sumbharāja set on both feet. 69 nyāsa􏰇 k􏰂tvā tato mantrī skandhādīnā􏰇 yathāvidhi |dgod byas de nas sngags pa yis|

phung po la sogs cho ga bzhin

kāyama􏰀􏰁alam āpanno mahāyoga􏰇 samārabhet| |sku yi dkyil 'khor rdzogs gyur nas|

sbyor ba chen po yang dag brtsam

After undertaking the laying out (and) the mantrin having acquired the body ma􏰀􏰁ala of appropriate elements, one should begin the Great Yoga. 70 mūrdhni madhyagata􏰇 cintet sampūr􏰀a􏰇 candrama􏰀􏰁alam

zla ba'i dkyil 'khor yang dag rdzogs
spyi bo'i dbus su rnam par bsam

tatra o􏰇kāra􏰇 śuklābha􏰇 prasphuratpañcaraśmikam| |der ni yi ge oM dkar po|

'od zer lnga ni rab 'phro ba'o

One should imagine centred at the crown of the head a fully formed moon-disc (and) there (being) a syllable “o􏰇”, white in colour, sending forth five (coloured) light rays.

                                                
212 dVP: samantato 213 dVP: vaktre 214 Tib: at the right shoulder 215 Tib: at the left (shoulder)
 
87 71 tato devī􏰇 viniścārya ādhipatyaprayogata􏰈 |de las lha mo dbyung ba ni|

bdag po dang ni rab sbyor ba'i

locanā􏰇 vividhā􏰇 cintet sarvavyomni prapūritām| |spyan ni du ma bsams nas ni|

nam mkha' thams cad rab tu dgang

Then one should imagine the goddess Locanā in union with her lord216, gone forth in all directions (and) filling the whole sky. 72 kāyavajra􏰇 vicintyātha vyomāpūrya vyavasthitam |de nas sku yi rdo rje ni|

nam mkha 'gang bar legs gnas pa

tanmadhye 'dhipati􏰇 cinted ātmanaś ca pura􏰈sthitam| |de dbus bdag po bsgom pa ni|

sum cu rtsa gnyis mtshan 'chang zhing

After visualizing the body-vajra and filling the sky, laid out in order, one should imagine the Lord in the centre in front of oneself, 73 dvā[5 B]tri􏰇śallak􏰃a􏰀adhara􏰇 vyañjanāśītibhū􏰃itam |dpe byad bzang po brgyad cus brgyan|

bdag kyang de yi mdun gnas la

prārthayet tu tato mantrī gāthādvayam udāharan| |de nas sngags pas tshigs bcad 'di|

gnyis brjod nas ni gsol ba gdab

bearing the thirty-two marks217 (and) adorned with the eighty signs (of a Buddha). Then the mantrin should make requests, saying (these) two verses: 74 buddhakāyadhara􏰈 śrīmā􏰇s trivajrābhedyabhāvita􏰈 |dpal ldan sangs rgyas sku 'chang ba|

rdo rje mi phyed gsum bsgoms pas

adhi􏰃􏰄hānapada􏰇 me 'dya karotu kāyavajri􏰀a􏰈|219 |deng bdag byin gyis brlabs nas su|

rdo rje sku ni mdzad du gsol

“(O) glorious bearer of the Buddha-Body, envisaged as the indivisible triple vajra, after blessing me now, please transform me into the body-vajra218.” 75 daśadiksa􏰇sthitā buddhās trivajrābhedyabhāvitā􏰈 |phyogs bcur bzhugs pa'i sangs rgyas rnams| |rdo rje mi phyed gsum bsgoms pas| adhi􏰃􏰄hānapada􏰇 me 'dya kuruvantu kāyavajri􏰀a􏰈|220 |deng bdag byin gyis brlabs nas su|

rdo rje sku ni mdzad du gsol

“(O) Buddhas abiding in the ten directions, envisaged as the indivisible triple vajra, after blessing me now, please transform me into the body-vajra218.” 76 locanāsahasa􏰇yukta􏰇 śāśvata􏰇 ca vibhāvayet |spyan dang lhan cig ldan pa yi|

rnam par snang mdzad bsams nas su

tat praveśyādhiti􏰃􏰄heta pañcaskandhaprapūritam| |de bcug nas ni byin brlabs te|

sku yi byin gyis brlab pa brtsam

One should imagine Vairocana and Locanā in a state of union. After engaging in that, it will bless (one), one being completely satiated with the five aggregates.

                                                
216 i.e. Vairocana 217 Skt. only. Tib. equivalent at end of preceding verse 218 as Tib. Skt: make mine now a state of blessing: one having the body-vajra 219 GST 12.71 220 GST 12.72
 
88 77 yat kāya􏰇 sarvabuddhānā􏰇 pañcskandhaprapūritam |sangs rgyas kun gyi sku gang yin|

phung po lnga yis rab gang ba

buddhakāyasvabhāvena mamāpi tād􏰂śa􏰇 bhavet| |sangs rgyas sku yi ngo bo yis|

bdag kyang de dang 'dra bar shog

“Whatever is the body of all the Buddhas, it is completely satiated with the five aggregates. May mine221 become like that indeed, (endowed) with the nature of the Buddha Body.”

     
o􏰇 sarvatathāgatakāyavajrasvabhāvātmako'ha􏰇| |oM sar+ba ta thA ga ta kA ya badzra swa bhA wa At+ma ko&haM| o􏰇 I am of the nature of the vajra of body of all tathāgatas
     
78 jihvābjamadhyagatam cinted ā􏰈kāra􏰇 raktavar􏰀akam |AH ni kha dog dmar ldan pas|

lce yi pad+mar rnam bsams te

pā􏰀􏰁arākhyā􏰇 ca saga􏰀ā􏰇 sa􏰇sphared vyomapūritām| |gos dkar zhes bya nam mkha' ru|

dgang| One should imagine, centred at the throat, a lotus (and) there a syllable “ā􏰈” (being) red in colour,

 
(and) the one called “pān􏰁arā”222 attended by her followers223 which one should completely disperse so they fill the whole sky. 79 vāgvajra􏰇 ca tathā mantrī vyomāpūrya vyavasthitam |gsung gi rdo rje'i sngags pa ni|

nam mkha'i dbus na bzhugs pa la

prārthayet tu tato mantrī gāthādvayam udāharan| |de nas sngags pas tshigs bcad 'di|

gnyis brjod nas ni gsol ba gdag

So after the speech-vajra and the mantrin fill the sky224, then the mantrin should make requests, saying (these) two verses: 80 dharmo vai vākpatha􏰈 śrīmā􏰇s trivajrābhedyabhāvita􏰈[6 A]

chos kyi gsung lam dpal dang ldan
rdo rje mi phyed gsum bsgoms pas

adhi􏰃􏰄hānapada􏰇 me 'dya karotu vāgvajri􏰀a􏰈|226 |deng bdag byin gyis brlabs nas su|

rdo rje gsung du mdzad du gsol

“(O) glorious pathway of the Dharma Speech, envisaged as the indivisible triple vajra, after blessing me now, please transform me into the speech-vajra 225.”

                                                
221 i.e. my body 222 i.e. Pān􏰁arāvasinī 223 Tib: in the sky 224 Tib: the mantrin of the vajra-speech resides in the middle of the sky and 225 as Tib. Skt: make mine now a state of blessing: one having the speech-vajra 226 GST 12.73
 
89 81 daśadiksa􏰇􏰃􏰄hitā buddhās trivajrābhedyabhāvita􏰈 |phyogs bcur bzhugs pa'i sngas rgyas rnams| |rdo rje mi phyed gsum bsgoms pas| adhi􏰃􏰄hānapada􏰇 me 'dya kurvantu vāgvajri􏰀a􏰈|227 |deng bdag byin gyis brlabs nas su|

rdo rje gsung du mdzad du gsol

“(O) Buddhas abiding in the ten directions, envisaged as the indivisible triple vajra, after blessing me now, please transform me into the speech- vajra225.” 82 svanāyakena sa􏰇yuktā􏰇 pā􏰀􏰁arā􏰇 sahasaiva tu |gos dkar mo dang lhan cig nyid|

rang gi gtso bor yang dag ldan

jihvāpravi􏰃􏰄ā􏰇 sa􏰇cintya vāgadhi􏰃􏰄hānam ārabhet| |lce la zhugs par rab bsams te|

gsung gi byin gyis brlab pa brtsam

Just (as before, one should imagine) Pā􏰀􏰁aravāsinī together with (her) consort228 in union. After thinking them entered into (one's) tongue, one should229 obtain the blessing of speech. 83 yad eva vajradharmasya vācā niruktisampadā |rdo rje chos kyi gsung gang yin|

nges pa'i tshig ni phun sum tshogs230

mamāpi tād􏰂śī vācā bhaved dharmadharopamā| |bdag gi tshig kyang de 'dra zhing|

chos 'dzin pa dang 'dra bar shog

“Whatever are words of Vajradharma, they are perfect explanations. May mine231 become like that speech, an equal of those dharma-holders.”

     
o􏰇 sarvatathāgatavāgvajrasvabhāvātmako'ham| |oM sar+ba ta thA ga ta wAk badzra swa bhA wa At+ma ko&haM| o􏰇 I am of the nature of the vajra of speech of all tathāgatas
     
84 vinyasya h􏰂daye mantrī śaśibimba􏰇 samujjvalam |sngags pas snying gar nyi ma yi|

gzugs brnyan 'bar ba bsam bya ste

rājāvartanibha􏰇 tatra hū􏰇kāra􏰇 pañcaraśmikam| |der ni mthing shun lta bu yi|

'od zer lngar ldan hUM dgod do

After placing at the heart-centre a moon-disc, extremely bright like lapis lazuli, the mantrin (should imagine)232 a “hū􏰇” having five (coloured) light rays. 85 tato niścārayed devī􏰇 māmakī􏰇 saga􏰀ā􏰇 tata􏰈 |de las lha mo mA ma kI|

tshogs dang bcas pa dbyung bar bya

Then one should send forth the goddess Māmakī attended by her followers and after imagining the

                                                
227 GST 12.74 228 i.e. Amitābha 229 Tib: will 230 D: chogs 231 i.e. my speech 232 Tib: The Mantrin should imagine, at the heart-centre, a blazing reflection of the sun with the appearance of lapis lazuli and place (there) . . .
 
90 cittavajra􏰇 tathā dhyātvā prārtheta yathā pura􏰈| |de bzhin thugs kyi rdo rje bsgom|

de la sngon bzhin gsol ba gdab

mind-vajra just so, one should make requests just as before. 86 cittavajradhara􏰈 śrīmā􏰇s trivajrābhedyabhāvita􏰈 |dpal ldan rdo rje thugs 'chang ba|

rdo rje mi phyed gsum bsgoms pas

adhi􏰃􏰄hānapada􏰇 me 'dya karotu cittavajri􏰀a􏰈|234 |deng bdag byin gyis brlabs nas su|

rdo rje thugs su mdzad du gsol

“(O) glorious holder of the vajra-mind, envisaged as the indivisible triple vajra, after blessing me now, please transform me into the mind-vajra233.” 87 daśadiksa􏰇sthitā buddhās trivajrābhedyabhāvitā􏰈 |phyogs bcur bzhugs pa'i sangs rgyas rnams| |rdo rje mi phyed gsum bsgoms pas| adhi􏰃􏰄hānapada􏰇 me 'dya kurvantu cittavajri􏰀a􏰈|235 |deng bdag byin gyis brlabs nas su|

rdo rje thugs su mdzad du gsol

“(O) Buddhas abiding in the ten directions, envisaged as the indivisible triple vajra, after blessing me now, please transform me into the mind-vajra233.” 88 cittavajrasamāyukta􏰇 h􏰂daye sampraveśya ca |mA ma kI tshogs ma lus pa|

rdo rje thugs dang yang dag ldan

māmakīvyūham[6 B] akhila􏰇 cittādhi􏰃􏰄hānam ārabhet| |snying gar yang ni bcug nas su|

thugs kyi byin gyis brlab pa brtsam

Having the mind-vajra at one's heart-centre and after completely merging into the form of Māmakī, one should obtain the blessing of mind. 89 yac citta􏰇 samantabhadrasya guhyakendrasya dhīmata􏰈

kun du bzang po'i thugs gang yin
gsang ba'i bdag po blo ldan pa

mamāpi tād􏰂śa􏰇 citta􏰇 bhaved vajradharopamam| |bdag kyang de dang 'dra gyur cig|

rdo rje 'dzin dang mtshungs par shog

“Whatever is a mind of total goodness is (a mind) of the wise Lord of the Secret Ones. May mine236 become like that mind, an equal of the vajra-holder.”

     
o􏰇 sarvatathāgatacittavajrasvabhāvātmako'ham| |oM sar+ba ta thA ga ta cit+ta badzra swa bhA wa At+ma ko&haM| o􏰇 I am of the nature of the vajra of mind of all tathāgatas
     
90 eva􏰇 p􏰂thag adhi􏰃􏰄hāya kulatrayavibhāgata􏰈 |de ltar rigs gsum dbye ba yis|

so sor byin gyis brlabs nas ni

Thus, after one has been blessed accordingly by each of the three (Buddha-)families, so the wise man will

                                                
233 as Tib. Skt: make mine now a state of blessing: one having the mind-vajra 234 GST 12.75 235 GST 12.76 236 i.e. my mind
 
91 puna􏰈 sarvātmaka􏰇 kuryān mantre􏰀ānena buddhimān| |blo dang ldan pas gsang sngags 'dis|

slar yang thams cad bdag nyid bya

become of the nature of all (those) things, through this mantra237:

 5b   
o􏰇 sarvatathāgatakāyavākcittavajrasvabhāvātmako'ham| |oM sar+ba ta thA ga ta kA ya wAk cit+ta badzra swa bhA wa At+ma ko&haM| o􏰇 I am of the nature of the vajra of body, speech and mind of all tathāgatas
     
91 adhi􏰃􏰄hāyaivam ātmāna􏰇 śaśima􏰀􏰁alamadhyagam |de ltar bdag nyid byin gyis brlabs|

zla ba'i dkyil 'khor dbus gnas pa'i

􏰃a􏰁bhiś cihnai􏰈 samāyukta􏰇 cintet samayasattvakam| |mtshan ma drug dang yang dag ldan|

dam tshig sems dpa' bsgom par bya

After being blessed thus, one should imagine oneself in the centre of a moon-disc, furnished with the six characteristics238, as the commitment-being. 92 h􏰂nmadhyasa􏰇sthita􏰇 sūk􏰃ma􏰇 jñānasattva􏰇 vibhāvayet

snying ga'i dbus su phra mo yi
ye shes sems dpa' rnam par bsgom

samādhisattvasa􏰇jña􏰇 ca hū􏰇kāra􏰇 taddh􏰂di nyaset| |ting 'dzin sems dpa' zhes bya ba'i|

yi ge hUM ni de ru dgod

One should imagine a very small wisdom-being situated in the middle of the heart239 and there one should place at the heart a syllable “hū􏰇”, understood as the concentration-being. 93 ni􏰃pādyaiva􏰇 mahāyoga􏰇 􏰄risattvātmakam ātmavān |sems dpa' gsum gyi bdag nyid can|

de ltar sbyor ba cher bskyed nas

anena vidhiyogena mahāsādhanam ārabhet| |cho ga sbyor ba 'di yis ni|

sgrub pa chen po brtsam par bya

Having undertaken the Great Yoga in this way and (being) like one with the nature of the three beings, by the practice of this method, one should commence the Great Accomplishment. 94 prāpya kanyā􏰇 viśālāk􏰃ī􏰇 rūpayauvanama􏰀􏰁itā􏰇 |gzugs bzang gzhon pas brgyan pa ni|

sems can240 ni bdag nyid che

nīlotpaladalaśyāmā􏰇 rajakasya mahātmana􏰈| |bu mo ut+pala mthing ga'i mdog|

mig yangs dam pa rnyed nas ni

After assuming (the form of) a young girl, royal and noble, wide-eyed and adorned with a youthful body, dark blue, the colour of the petals of the night-lotus, 95 suśik􏰃itā􏰇 samādāya sādhake bhaktivatsalām |mnyam par bzhag cing legs par bslab|

sgrub pa po la shin tu mos

(who is) well disciplined after undertaking the practice241

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
237 Tib: secret mantra 238 i.e. of a bhagavat 239 Tib: heart-centre 240 D: sme sha can
 
92 o􏰇kāra􏰇 śira[7 A]si dhyātvā ā􏰈kāra􏰇 vākpathe nyaset| |oM ni spyi bor bsam par bya|

AH ni ngag gi lam la dgod

and devoted to worship, one should imagine a syllable “o􏰇” on (her) head and should place a syllable “ā􏰈” at the pathway of speech. 96 hū􏰇kāra􏰇 h􏰂daye dhyātvā svā nābhau hā dvipādayo􏰈 |hUM ni snying gar bsam bya zhing|

lte bar swA dang rkang gnyis hA

locanā􏰇 māmakī􏰇 cāpi tathā pā􏰀􏰁aravāsinīm| |spyan dang mA ma kI dang ni|

de bzhin du ni gos dkar mo

After imagining a syllable “hū􏰇” at the heart-centre, a “svā” at the navel and a “hā” on each foot, Locanā, Māmakī and in the same way, Pā􏰀􏰁aravāsinī 97 tāra􏰇 cāpi tathā mantrī p􏰂thivyādi􏰃u sa􏰇nyaset |sgrol ma yang ni sngags pa yis|

|sa la sogs la rnam par dgod| 
rūpavajrādikā devīs tasyām eva vibhāvayet| |lha mo rdo rje gzugs la sogs|

de nyid la ni rnam bsams la

and also in that manner the mantrin should place Tārā on the earth element242 and so on. One should visualize on her243 the goddesses Rūpavajrā and so on. 98 k􏰃itigarbhādibhis tāsā􏰇 samāpatti􏰇 vibhāvayet |sa snying la sogs de rnams dang|

snyoms par 'jug pa bsgom par bya

dak􏰃ine vajravetālī􏰇 bhuje vāme 'parājitām| |lag g.yas rdo rje ro langs ma|

g.yon la gzhan gyis mi thub ma

One should imagine the union of them with K􏰃itigarbha and so on and on the right, Vajravetālī and on the left hand, Aparājitā, 99 bh􏰂ku􏰄i􏰇 ca mukhe tasyā ekaja􏰄ā􏰇 ca guhyake |de yi khar ni khro gnyer ma|

gsang bar ral pa gcig ma'o

bhūyo dak􏰃i􏰀apārśvasthā􏰇 viśvavajrī􏰇 tathāgatīm| |gzhan yang dbung pa g.yas par ni|

de bzhin gshegs yum rdo rje ma

Bh􏰂ku􏰄i at her mouth and Ekaja􏰄ā at (her) secret place. Moreover, the tathāgatī Viśva-vajrī, situated on the right-hand side of the chest244. 100 viśvaratnā􏰇 ca vāme tu mudrāyā􏰈 pravibhāvayet |g.yon du sna tshogs rin chen gyi|

phyag rgya dag ni bsgom par bya

punar dak􏰃i􏰀ajānustā􏰇 viśvapadmā􏰇 tathāgatī􏰇| |pus mo g.yas la gnas par yang|

sna tshogs pad+ma de bzhin gshegs

and imagine Viśvaratnā on the left (-hand side) of the consort245. Furthermore, (imagine) at the right knee the tathāgatī Viśvapadmā, 101 viśvakarmā􏰇 ca vāme tu mūrdhni gaganavajri􏰀ī |g.yon pa la ni sna tshogs las|

spyi bor nam mkha'i rdo rje ma

Viśvakarmā at the left (knee), Akaśavajri􏰀ī on the crown of the head and the Earth-bearing Goddess set

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
241 Tib: after being absorbed in meditation 242 i.e. at the place of the earth element 243 i.e. oneself 244 Tib: Vajrī, a consort of the tathāgatas, at the right shoulder 245 Tib: perfect consort.
 
93 pādāntadvayavinyastā dhara􏰀ī􏰇dharadevatīm| |rkang pa gnyis la sa yi ni|

sa 'dzin lha mo gzhag par bya

on the soles246 of both feet. 102 eva􏰇 sa􏰇sk􏰂tya tā􏰇 yogī vajrapadmam athārabhet |de ltar 'dus byas rnal 'byor pas|

rdo rje pad+ma yang dag brtsam

mantrī hū􏰇kāraja􏰇 vajra􏰇 dhyāyād vai pañcasūcikam| |hUM gi sngags skyes rdo rje ni|

rtse mo mnga' ba bsam par bya

After arranging her247 thus, the yogin then should then undertake the “vajra-lotus”. The mantrin should think the vajra born from the syllable “hū􏰇” (to be) five-pronged indeed248. 103 madhyasūcau tathā tasya pra􏰀ava􏰇 ca vibhāvayet |de tshe de yi dbus su|

oM ni rnam par bsam par bya

tathaivā􏰃􏰄adala􏰇 padmam ā􏰈kāre􏰀a [7 B] tu bhāvayet| |de bzhin a las byung ba yi|

pad+ma 'dab ma brgyad pa ni

So on the central prong249 of that, one should visualize the syllable “o􏰇” and also with a syllable “ā􏰈” make an eight-petalled lotus250. 104 pañcaraśmisamākīr􏰀a􏰇 tata􏰈 sādhanam ārabhet| |'od zer lnga yis khyab bsams la|

de 'og sgrub pa brtsam par bya

Thinking of251 five(-coloured) light rays being spread out everywhere, one should undertake the practice.

 6a   
o􏰇 sarvatathāgatānurāga􏰀avajrasvabhāvātmako'ham| |oM sar+ba ta thA ga tA nu rA ga Na badzra swa bhA wa At+ma ko&haM| o􏰇 I am of the nature of the vajra of passion of all tathāgatas.
     
105 hū􏰇kāragītena tu cālayeta |rdo rje 'dzin pa'i nga rgyal legs 'chang ste| samudvahan vajradharasya garvam |hUM gi glu yis kyang ni bskyod bya zhing| svabodhicittodayakāla eva |rang gi byang chub sems nyid phyung ba'i tshe| pha􏰄kāramantra􏰇 samudīrayet sa􏰈| |des ni phaT kyi gsang sngags brjod par bya| By the syllable “hū􏰇” being sounded, one should become aroused, taking on the pride of a vajra- holder252. (It being) the time for the coming forth of one's own bodhicitta, one should declare the mantra of the syllable “pha􏰄”.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
246 lit. extremities 247 i.e. oneself 248 Tib: With the syllable “hū􏰇” born from the mantrin, one should imagine a vajra at the crown (of the head) 249 Tib: in the middle 250 Tib: an eight-petalled lotus born from “a” (i.e. “ā􏰈”) 251 Tib. only 252 alt: Vajradhara
 
94 106 visargānte punar mantrī bodhicittena pūjayet |phyung nas slar yang sngags par ni|

rnams| daśadiksa􏰇sthitān buddhān mantram etad udīrayet| |byang chub sems kyis mchod nas ni|

gsang sngags 'di ni brjod par bya

At the end of the coming forth, the mantrin should make offering with the bodhicitta to the Buddhas abiding in the ten directions (and) should say this mantra253:

     
o􏰇 sarvatathāgatapūjāvajrasvabhāvātmako'ham| |oM sar+ba ta thA ga ta pU dza badzra swa bhA wa At+ma ko&haM| o􏰇 I am of the nature of the vajra of worship of all tathāgatas.
     
107 svamantrāk􏰃arani􏰃panna􏰇 trivajrādhi􏰃􏰄hasvakam |rang sngags yi ge las dbyung ba|

rdo rje gsum gyis byin brlabs bdag

padmamadhye tu ni􏰃pādya dve􏰃avajro bhavet puna􏰈| |pad+ma'i dbus su bskyed nas ni|

slar yang zhe sdang rdo rjer gyur

Oneself, come forth from the syllable of one's own mantra254, being blessed with the triple vajra and after arising in the centre of the lotus, should once again become Anger-vajra255. 108 vajradh􏰂gmantrani􏰃panna􏰇 paśyed ak􏰃obhyavajri􏰀am |badzra dhRik sngags kyis dbyung ba|

mi bskyod rdo rje bsam pa yang

ja􏰄āmuku􏰄adhara􏰇 nātham ak􏰃obhyak􏰂taśekharam| |mgon po ral pa thor tshugs can|

mi bskyod pas ni dbu rgyan byas

Arisen from the mantra “Vajra-dh􏰂k”, one should imagine Ak􏰃obhya-vajra, with his hair drawn up in a topknot, as (one's) Lord, with Ak􏰃obhya placed on his crown. 109 n􏰂pavartakasa􏰇kāśa􏰇 k􏰂􏰃􏰀araktasitānanam |mthing shun bzang po'i mdog ltar snang|

sngo nag dkar dang dmar ba'i zhal

sarvāla􏰆kārasampūr􏰀a􏰇 􏰃a􏰁bhuja􏰇 tu vibhāvayet| |rgyan rnams thams cad yongs su rdzogs|

phyag drug par ni rnam par bsgom

Then one should imagine (him) as resembling (the colour of) excellent256 lapis lazuli, with a dark blue, a red and a white face257 furnished with all adornments and having six arms. 110 vajra􏰇 cakra􏰇 tathā padma􏰇 savyahaste􏰃u dhārayet |rdo rje 'khor lo pad+ma ni|

g.yas pa'i phyag tu bsam bya zhing

Thus, one should visualize (and) hold258 in the right hands a vajra, wheel and lotus, in the left ones a bell,

                                                
253 Tib: secret mantra 254 i.e. hū􏰇 255 i.e. Wrathful Ak􏰃obhya 256 Tib. only 257 Tib: a dark blue, a white and a red face 258 Skt. only
 
95 gha􏰀􏰄ā􏰇 cintāma􏰀i􏰇 kha􏰁ga􏰇 tasya vāme􏰃u bhāvayet| |dril bu rin chen ral gri ni|

de yi g.yon la bsam par bya

wish-fulfilling258 jewel and sword. 111 ni􏰃kramya h􏰂dayād e􏰃a vyavalokya diśo daśa |'di ni thugs ka las byung nas|

phyogs bcu rnams su gzigs nas ni

buddharddhim akhilā􏰇 [8 A] k􏰂tvā dharmacakra􏰇 pravartya ca

chos kyi 'khor lo bskor ba dang
sangs rgyas mdzad pa kun zad de

After emerging from the heart-centre, thoroughly258 surveying (all) ten directions, exercising the miraculous powers of a Buddha and turning the wheel of dharma259 112 sa􏰇śodhya nikhilān sattvān dve􏰃avajrapade sthitān

sems can ma lus kun sbyangs nas
zhe sdang rdo rje gnas la 'jog

āgatya vajranāthasya purato'bhini􏰃īdati| |slar byon rdo rje mgon po yi|

spyan snga ru ni 'dug par 'gyur

(and) after thoroughly purifying all beings, who are (then) set in the state of Anger-vajra, one returns and sits down before the Vajra-lord. 113 anupraveśyaina􏰇 mantrī h􏰂dyātmāna􏰇 vibhāvayet |sngags pas de yi snying ga ru|

rjes zhugs bdag nyid rnam bsgoms pas

pūrvarūpa􏰇 parāv􏰂tya dve􏰃avajrapade sthita􏰈| |snga ma'i gzugs ni yongs gyur nas|

zhe sdang rdo rje gnas su zhugs

After entering into oneself, the mantrin should imagine being at one's own heart and after returning to one's previous form, abiding in the state of Anger- vajra, 114 indranīlaprabha􏰇 dīpta􏰇 sūryama􏰀􏰁alamadhyagam |in+dra nI la'i 'od 'bar ba|

nyi ma'i dkyil 'khor dbus su bzhugs

svamudrāli􏰆gita􏰇 vīra􏰇 sarvāla􏰆kārabhū􏰃itam| |dpa' bo rang gi phyag rgyas 'khyud|

rgyan rnams kun gyis rnam par brgyan

blazing with sapphire brilliance, in the centre of a sun-disc, (as) a Hero embraced by his own consort (and) arrayed with all adornments, 115 raudraśāntamahārāga􏰇 mukhatrayavirājitam |drag po zhi dang 'dod chags che|

zhal gsum gyis ni rnam par mdzes

dve􏰃avajrasamādhistha􏰈 prots􏰂jet sarvama􏰀􏰁alam| |zhe sdang rdo rje ting 'dzin gnas|

dkyil 'khor thams cad spro bar mdzad

glorious with a wrathful, a peaceful and a greatly passionate face. Abiding in the Anger-vajra concentration, one should set forth the whole ma􏰀􏰁ala. 116 jinajigmantrani􏰃panna􏰇 s􏰂jed vairocana􏰇 vibhum |dzi na dzik sngags kyis dbyung ba|

gtso bo260 rnam par snang mdzad dbyung

Arisen from the mantra “Jina-jik”, one should send forth Vairocana, (as) a sovereign, with Ak􏰃obhya placed on his crown261, resembling the autumn

                                                
259 Tib: and (undertaking) all the Buddha-actions 260 D: gco bo
 
96 śaraccandrā􏰇śusa􏰇kāśa􏰇 ja􏰄āmuku􏰄ama􏰀􏰁itam| |ston ka'i zla zer ltar snang zhing|

thor tshugs cod pan dag gis brgyan

moon-light and adorned with a topknot and diadem,

 6b   
117 sitaraktak􏰂􏰃􏰀avadana􏰇 􏰃a􏰁bhuja􏰇 śāntarūpi􏰀am |dkar dang nag dang dmar ba'i zhal| |phyag drug zhi ba'i gzugs can te| cakravajrasitāmbhoja􏰇 dak􏰃i􏰀e􏰃u vicintayet| |'khor lo rdo rje pad+ma dag|

g.yas pa la ni rnam par bsam

(and) should think of (him) in peaceful guise, with a white, a red and a dark blue face262 and with six arms: in the right ones, a wheel, vajra and white day- lotus, 118 gha􏰀􏰄ā􏰇 cintāma􏰀i􏰇 kha􏰁ga􏰇 vāme􏰃v asya vibhāvayet

dril bu rin chen ral gri ni
'di yi g.yon du rnam par bsgom

h􏰂dayāt tathaiva nirgatya mohacaryāsthitā􏰈 prajā􏰈| |de bzhin thugs ka las byung ste|

gti mug spyod nas sems can rnams

and visualize in the left ones, a bell, wish-fulfilling263 jewel and sword. After going forth from the heart- centre, in the same manner, to (those) beings fallen into delusion, 119 sa􏰇śodhya punar āgatya punaś cakre ni􏰃īdati |yang dag sbyangs te slar byon nas|

shar phyogs kyi ni zla bar bzhugs

ratnadh􏰂gmantrani􏰃panna􏰇 ratnaketu􏰇 s􏰂jed budha􏰈| |rat+na dhRik sngags kyis dbyung ba|

rin chen tog ni sngags pas dbyung

and after thoroughly purifying (them), he returns264 and sits down in the east on a (moon) disc. Arisen from the mantra “Ratna-dh􏰂k”, one should send forth Ranaketu265, (as) a sage266. 120 ja􏰄ājū􏰄adhara􏰇 saumyam [8 B] ak􏰃obhyak􏰂taśekharam |zhi ba'i thor tshugs cod pan 'chang|

mi bskyod pas ni dbu rgyan byas

pītak􏰂􏰃􏰀asitāsya􏰇 ca 􏰃a􏰁bhuja􏰇 cāpi cintayet| |ser dang gnag dang dkar ba'i zhal|

phyag drug par ni rnam par bsgom

(and) should think of (him with his) hair bound up in a topknot, in peaceful guise with Ak􏰃obhya placed on his crown and with a yellow, a dark blue267 and a white face and with six arms. 121 tasya cintāma􏰀i􏰇 vajra􏰇 cakra􏰇 savye􏰃u bhāvayet |yid bzhin nor bu rdo rje dang|

'khor lo de yi g.yas su bsgom

gha􏰀􏰄ā􏰇 ca pītakamala􏰇 kha􏰁ga􏰇 vāme􏰃u bhāvayet| |dril bu pad+ma ser po dang|

ral gri g.yon du bsgom par bya

One should visualize in the right (hands), a wish- fulfilling jewel, vajra and wheel and in the left ones, a bell, yellow lotus and sword.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
261 Tib. only 262 Tib: a white, a black and a red face 263 Skt. only 264 lit. comes again 265 i.e. Ratnasambhava 266 Tib: a mantrin 267 Tib: black
 
97 122 h􏰂dayāt tathaiva nirgatya aha􏰆kārapade sthitān |de bzhin thugs ka nas byung ste|

nga rgyal gnas la gnas pa rnams

sa􏰇śodhya dak􏰃i􏰀e bhāge ratnamadhye ni􏰃īdati| |yang dag sbyangs nas lho yi char|

rin chen dbus su bzhugs par gsungs

After going forth from the heart-centre, in the same manner, and after thoroughly purifying (those) abiding in a state of pride, he sits down in the southern part, in the centre of a jewel. 123 āroligmantrani􏰃panna􏰇 s􏰂jed amitavajri􏰀am |A ro lIk sngags kyis dbyung ba|

mtha' yas rdo rje can dbyung ste

padmarāgaprabha􏰇 saumyam ak􏰃obhyak􏰂taśekharam| |zhib pad+ma rA ga'i 'od|

mi bskyod pas ni dbu rgyan byas

Arisen from the mantra “Āro-lik”, one should send forth Amitavajra268, radiant as a ruby-coloured lotus, in peaceful guise with Ak􏰃obhya placed on his crown, 124 ja􏰄āmuku􏰄adhara􏰇 nātha􏰇 raktak􏰂􏰃􏰀asitānanam |mgon po ral pa thor tshugs can|

dmar dang gnag dang dkar ba'i zhal

ś􏰂􏰆gārarasasa􏰇yukta􏰇 􏰃a􏰁bhuja􏰇 tu vibhāvayet |sgeg pa'i nyams dang yang dag ldan|

phyag drug par ni rnam par bsgom

(and) should think of (him as one's) Lord with his hair drawn up in a topknot and with a red, dark blue267 and a white face, accompanied by erotic desire and with six arms. 125 padmanāla􏰇 g􏰂hītvā tu vāmena saha gha􏰀􏰄ayā |g.yon pa'i phyag gis dril bu dang|

pad+ma sdong bu 'dzin par mdzad

h􏰂tpradeśasthita􏰇 padma􏰇 dak􏰃i􏰀ena vikāśayet| |pad+ma thugs ka'i phyogs gnas pa|

g.yas pa yis ni 'byed par mdzad

While holding a lotus stem together with a bell with the left (hand), one should manifest the lotus, located at the heart centre by the right (hand), 126 savyayor vajracakre tu vāmayo ratnakha􏰁gakau |rdo rje 'khor lo g.yas gnyis la|

rin chen ral gri g.yon gnyis la

pūrvavad rāgi􏰀a􏰈 śodhya p􏰂􏰃􏰄hato 'bje ni􏰃īdati| |sngon bzhin 'dod chags can sbyangs nas|

rgyab kyi pad+ma la bzhugs 'gyur

in the (other) two right, a vajra and wheel and in the (other) two left, a jewel and sword. As before, after purifying those with desire, he sits down behind269 on a lotus. 127 amoghavajri􏰀a􏰇 mantrī prajñādh􏰂gmantranirmitam |pradz+nyA dhRik sngags kyis dbyung ba |

sngags pas don yod rdo rje can

haritābha􏰇 s􏰂jen nātha􏰇 ja􏰄āmuku􏰄ama􏰀􏰁itam| |mgon po sku mdog ljang gur dbyung|

mi bskyod pas ni dbu rgyan byas

The mantrin should send forth Amoghavajra270, formed from271 the mantra “Prajñā-dh􏰂k”, green in appearance, as (one's) Lord, with Ak􏰃obhya placed on his crown272 and with his hair drawn up in a

                                                
268 i.e. Amitābha 269 i.e. in the west 270 i.e. Amoghasiddhi 271 Tib: arisen from
 
98
 |thor tshugs cod pan dag gis brgyan| topknot  
128 haritak􏰂􏰃􏰀asitāsya􏰇 ca 􏰃a􏰁bhuja􏰇 raśmi[9 A]bhāsuram

ljang dang gnag dang dkar ba'i zhal
phyag drug 'od zer rnam par 'phro

kha􏰁ga􏰇 ca viśvavajra􏰇 ca cakra􏰇 savye􏰃u bhāvayet| |ral gri sna tshogs rdo rje dang|

'khor lo g.yas su bsgom par bya

and should visualize (him) with a green, a dark blue273 and a white face, radiant with light rays, with six arms: a sword, crossed vajra and wheel in the right ones 129 gha􏰀􏰄ām apasavyahaste􏰃u haritapadma􏰇 ma􏰀i􏰇 tathā |phyag g.yon na ni dril bu dang|

de bzhin pad ljang nor bu'o

abhūtavacasa􏰈 sattvān viśodhya punar āgata􏰈| |log pa'i dad can sems can rnams|

 7a 
 |rnam par sbyangs nas slar byon te|  
and a bell, green lotus and jewel in the left ones. After completely purifying (those) beings with wrong speech274, he returns275 130 uttarasyā􏰇 diśi tathā viśvavajre ni􏰃īdati |de bzhin byang gi phyogs su ni|

sna tshogs rdo rje dag la bzhugs

dve􏰃o mohas tathā rāgaś cintāma􏰀i􏰈 samayas tathā| |zhe sdang gti mug de bzhin chags|

yid bzhin nor bu dam tshig ste

and sits down in the northern quarter on a crossed vajra. The lineages of “hatred”, “delusion” and “passion”, of the “wish-fulfilling jewel” and of the “pledge”, 131 kulā hyete tu vai pañca kāmamok􏰃aprasādhakā􏰈 |rigs ni lnga po 'di dag nyid|

'dod dang thar par rab sgrub pa'o

mantrān moharater jātā􏰇 s􏰂jed devī􏰇 tu locanām| |mo ha ra ti sngags kyis dbyung|

lha mo spyan ni dbyung bar bya

these very five, are the best practices for (those having) the desire for liberation. Arisen from the mantra of Moharatī, one should send forth the goddess Locanā, 132 śvetā􏰇 śāntarasopetā􏰇 mūrdhni vairocanā􏰆kitām |dkar zhing zhi ba'i nyams dang ldan|

rnam snang mdzad kyis spyi bor mtshan

sitaraktak􏰂􏰃􏰀avadanā􏰇 􏰃a􏰁bhujā􏰇 tu vibhāvayet| |dkar dang gnag dang dmar ba'i zhal|

phyag drug par ni rnam par bsgom

and should visualize her (as) white, having a serene disposition and marked with Vairocana on her crown, with a white, a red and a dark blue face276 and with six arms. 133 savye cakra􏰇 ca vajra􏰇 ca tathaiva sitam utpalam |'khor lo rdo rje de bzhin du|

ut+pala dkar po g.yas su bsam

One should imagine in the right, a wheel, vajra and indeed, a white night-lotus, and also, in the left, a

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
272 Tib. only 273 Tib: black 274 Tib: perverse faith 275 lit. being come again 276 Tib: with a white, a black and a red face
 
99 vāme gha􏰀􏰄ā􏰇 tathā ratna􏰇 kha􏰁ga􏰇 cāpi vibhāvayet| |dril bu de bzhin rin chen dang|

ral gri g.yon du bsgom par bya

bell, jewel and sword. 134 h􏰂dayāt tu vinirgatya vyavalokya diśo daśa |de bzhin thugs ka nas byung ste|

phyogs bcu dag tu gzigs nas ni

grahavyādhyāture loke śānti􏰇 k􏰂tvā mahāk􏰂pā| |gdon dang nad gdungs 'jigs pa rnams|

thugs rje chen pos zhi mdzad de

After going forth from the heart-centre and surveying (all) ten directions, and after (her) great compassion having provided relief from the demons and sicknesses of the world277 and 135 āgatya cakramadhye tu pūrvako􏰀e ni􏰃īdati |slar byon nas ni zla dkyil du|

shar gyi mtshams su bzhugs par gyur

mantrād dve􏰃arater jātā􏰇 s􏰂jed devī􏰇 tu māmakī􏰇| |dwe Sha ra ti'i sngags kyis dbyung|

lha mo mA ma kI dbyung ste

after returning, she sits down in the south-eastern278 quarter in the centre of a (moon) disc. Arisen from the mantra of “Dve􏰃aratī”, one should send forth the goddess Māmakī, 136 nīlotpaladalaśyāmā􏰇 cāruvaktrā􏰇 manoramām |ut+pala sngon po'i 'dab ltar sngo|

bzhin bzangs shin tu yid du 'ong

k􏰂􏰃􏰀araktasitā[9 B]syā􏰇 ca ak􏰃obhyak􏰂taśekharām| |gnag dang dkar dang dmar ba ste|

mi bskyod pas ni dbu rgyan byas

attractive with a beautiful mouth, dark blue as night-lotus petals, with a dark blue, a red and a white face279 and with Ak􏰃obhya placed on her crown. 137 savye􏰃u vajra􏰇 cakra􏰇 ca nīlaraktotpala􏰇 tathā |'khor lo rdo rje de bzhin du|

ut+pala sngo dmar g.yas pa la

gha􏰀􏰄ā􏰇 ratna􏰇 ca kha􏰁ga􏰇 ca vāmahaste􏰃u dhārayet| |dril bu rin chen ral gri ni|

g.yon gyi phyag na bsnams par mdzad

One should hold in the right, a vajra, wheel280 and purple lotus and in the left hands, a bell, jewel and sword. 138 mahāvighnabhayārtānā􏰇 rak􏰃ā􏰇 k􏰂tvā mahāk􏰂pā |bgegs chen 'jigs pas gzir ba rnams|

thugs rje chen pos srung bar mdzad

ni􏰃kramya punar āgatya nair􏰂tyā􏰇 sā ni􏰃īdati| |byung nas slar ni byon nas su|

lho nub tu ni bzhugs par gyur

After going forth, in the same manner and after (her) great compassion having provided protection for those afflicted by the terrifying great obstructing ones and after returning, she sits down in the south- west(ern quarter). 139 mantrād rāgarater jātā􏰇 s􏰂jet pā􏰀􏰁aravāsinīm |rA ga ra ti'i sngags kyis dbyung|

gos dkar mo ni dbyung bya ste

Arisen from the mantra of “Rāgaratī”, one should send forth Pā􏰀􏰁aravāsinī, with a red, a dark blue and

                                                
277 Tib: seeing in (all) ten directions those in fearful suffering from demons and sicknesses, (her) great compassion brings them peace 278 lit.. eastern-corner 279 Tib: with a black, a white and a red face 280 Tib: a wheel and vajra as before [i.e. a vajra and wheel, as in all the previous occurrences]
 
100 raktak􏰂􏰃􏰀asitāsyā􏰇 vai padmarāgama􏰀iprabhām| |zhal ni dmar dang gnag dang dkar|

pad+ma rA ga'i 'od dang ldan

a white face281, radiant as a ruby-coloured lotus. 140 sāmitābhaja􏰄ājū􏰄ā􏰇 􏰃a􏰁bhujā􏰇 tu vibhāvayet |'od dpag med bcas ral pa'i tshogs|

phyag drug pa ni rnam bsgoms te

g􏰂hītvotpalanāla􏰇 tu vāmena saha gha􏰀􏰄ayā| |g.yon pa dril bur bcas pa yis| |ut+pala sdong bu 'dzin mdzad la| One should imagine (her) hair bound up in a topknot along with an Amitābha and (with) six arms, with a left one holding a lotus-stem, together with a bell, 141 utpala􏰇 h􏰂tpradeśastha􏰇 rakta􏰇 savyena bodhayet |thugs kar gnas pa'i ut+pala|

dmar po g.yas kyis 'byed par mdzad

vajra􏰇 cakra􏰇 ca savyābhyā􏰇 ma􏰀i􏰇 kha􏰁ga􏰇 ca vāmata􏰈|

rdo rje 'khor lo g.yas dag la
nor bu rin chen ral gri g.yon

with a right one, one should open the red lotus (flower) located at the heart centre and with the (other) two right, a vajra and wheel and in the left, a jewel and sword. 142 dhārayantī vinirgatya śānti􏰇 k􏰂tvā mahāture |bsnams par mdzad pa phyung nas ni|

gdon gyis nyen pa zhi mdzad de

āgatya padmamadhye vai vāyuko􏰀e ni􏰃īdati| |slar byon pad+ma'i dbus nyid du|

nub byang mtshams su bzhugs par 'gyur

After going forth (as) she who sustains, providing relief to those in great distress282 and returning, she sits down in the centre of a lotus in the north-western quarter283.

 7b   
143 mantrād vajrarater jātā􏰇 s􏰂jet tārā􏰇 manoramām |badzra ra ti'i sngags kyis dbyung|

yid 'ong sgrol ma dbyung bya ste

haritak􏰂􏰃􏰀asitāsyā􏰇 ca durvāpattra285samaprabhām| |ljang dang gnag dang dkar ba'i zhal|

dur ba'i286 lo ma'i mdangs dang ldan

Arisen from the mantra of “Vajraratī”, one should send forth Tārā, attractive with a green, a dark blue and a white face284 (and) a complexion (the colour) of a stalk of dūrva grass. 144 amoghena k􏰂to􏰃􏰀ī􏰃ā􏰇 􏰃a􏰁bhujā􏰇 tu vibhāvayet |don yod pas ni gtsug tor byas|

phyag drug par ni rnam par bsgom

and one should imagine (her) with Amoghasiddhi placed on her crown, (with) six arms, a crossed vajra,

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
281 Tib: with a red, a black, and a white face 282 Tib: afflicted by demons 283 lit. windy corner 284 Tib: with a green, a black, and a white face 285 hyp.; dVP & Trp: durvāpatra 286 D: kha ba
 
101 viśvavajra􏰇 ca cakra􏰇 ca savyato'sitam utpalam| |sna tshogs rdo rje 'khor lo dang|

ut+pala dkar po g.yas pa na

wheel and a dark287 lotus on the right, 145 vāme􏰃u [10 A] vinyased gha􏰀􏰄ā􏰇 ratna􏰇 kha􏰁ga􏰇 tathā vratī

dril bu rin chen ral gri ni
brtul zhugs can gyis g.yon du bsam

sarvasattvān vaśīk􏰂tya viśvavajrāsanā puna􏰈| |sems can thams cad dbang mdzad de|

sna tshogs rdo rje'i gdan la yang

and then the devotee should place in the left (hands) a bell, jewel and sword. After subduing all beings, moreover, sitting on a crossed vajra, 146 nirgatāsau samāgamya śivasthāne ni􏰃īdati |byung nas slar ni byon nas su|

byang shar mtshams su bzhugs par 'gyur

dvitīye tu pu􏰄e yogī rūpavajrādika􏰇 s􏰂jet| |rnal 'byor pas ni rim gnyis par|

gzugs rdo rje la sogs pa dbyung

she, gone forth and after returning, sits down in the north-eastern quarter. Then the yogin should send forth Rūpavajrā and so forth onto the second surround288. 147 agniko􏰀e s􏰂jed devī􏰇 rūpavajrā􏰇 manoramām |me yi mtshams su dgod bya ba|

rdo rje gzugs ni yid 'ong ba

trimukhā􏰇 􏰃a􏰁bhujā􏰇 śvetā􏰇 śrīvairocanamaulikām| |zhal gsum phyag drug dkar ba ste|

dbu rgyan rnam par snang mdzad dpal

In the south-eastern quarter289, one should send forth the goddess Rūpavajrā, attractive, with three faces and six arms, white and crowned with venerable Vairocana, 148 g􏰂hītadarpa􏰀ā􏰇 dvābhyā􏰇 śe􏰃am moharater iva |gnyis kyis me long 'dzin mdzad de|

lhag ma gti mug dag dang mtshungs

nair􏰂tyā􏰇 vinyased devī􏰇 śabdavajrā􏰇 tu 􏰃a􏰁bhujām| |bden bral phyogs dgod lha mo ni|

rdo rje sgra ste phyag drug ma

holding a mirror with two (hands), the others like Moharatī. In the south-western quarter, one should place the goddess Śabdavajrā, with six arms, 149 pītavar􏰀ā􏰇 trivaktrā􏰇 ca ratnasambhavamaulikām |zhal gsum sku mdog ser mo ste|

dbu rgyan rin chen 'byung ldan yin

vī􏰀āvyagradvihastā􏰇 ca śe􏰃a􏰇 māmakīvad bhavet| |phyag gnyis kyis ni pi wang bsnams|

lhag ma mA ma kI dang mtshungs

yellow in colour and with three faces, crowned with Ratnasambhava and she should be holding a lute with two hands, the others like Māmakī. 150 vāyusthāne nyased devī􏰇 gandhavajrā􏰇 tu 􏰃a􏰁bhujām |rlung gi phyogs dgod lha mo ni|

rdo rje dri ste phyag drug ma

In the north-western quarter290, one should place the goddess Gandhavajrā, with six arms, red in colour

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
287 Tib: white 288 Tib: level i.e. the next level down from the level where the five main deities and the four goddesses have been placed so far 289 lit. corner of Agni 290 lit. quarter of wind
 
102 raktavar􏰀ā􏰇 trivaktrā􏰇 ca amitābhaja􏰄ādharām| |zhal gsum sku mdog dmar mo ste|

snang mtha' yas kyi thor tshugs can

and with three faces and a topknot with Amitābha, 151 śa􏰆khavyagradvihastā􏰇 ca śe􏰃ai􏰈 pā􏰀􏰁aravāsinīm |phyag gnyis kyis ni dung bsnams te|

lhag ma gos dkar can dang mtshungs

aiśānyā􏰇 vinyased devī􏰇 rasavajrā􏰇 tu 􏰃a􏰁bhujām| |dbang ldan phyogs dgod lha mo ni|

rdo rje ro ste phyag drug ma

holding a conch with two hands and with the others like Pā􏰀􏰁aravāsinī. In the north-eastern quarter, one should place the goddess Rasavajrā, with six arms 152 trimukhā􏰇 śyāmavar􏰀ā􏰇 ca dundubhisvaramaulikām |zhal gsum sku mdog ljang gu ste|

dbu rgyan291 la ni rnga sgra bzhugs

hastastharasabhā􏰀􏰁ā􏰇 ca śe􏰃ais tārāsamāk􏰂tim| |phyag gnyis la ni ro yi snod|

lhag ma sgrol ma lta bu yin

and three faces, green in colour and crowned with Amoghasiddhi292, holding with her293 hands a vessel of flavours and with the others like Tārā. 153 vajrasattva􏰇 samā[10 B ]li􏰆gya vahnimadhye vyavasthitām

rdo rje sems dpa' legs 'khyud de
'khor lo'i dbus na rab bzhugs par

cintayet sparśavajrā􏰇 tu patitulyā􏰇 mukhādibhi􏰈| |rdo rje reg bya bsam bya ste|

zhal sogs bdag po lta bu'o

Now one should think of the vajra-being, set in the middle of fire294 and in thorough embrace (and) Sparśavajrā with faces etc. the same as her Lord. 154 dvitīye tu pu􏰄e pūrve pa􏰄􏰄ikāyā􏰇 s􏰂jed vratī |rim pa gsum pa shar gyi ni|

snam bur brtul zhugs can gyis dbyung

mai􏰇thlī􏰇bījavini􏰃pannau maitreyak􏰃itigarbhakau| |maiM th+liM sa bon las byung ba|

byams pa sa yis snying po gnyis

The devotee should send forth to the border in the east, in the second surround295, Maitreya and K􏰃itigarbha, arisen from the syllables “mai􏰇” and “thlī􏰇”. 155 pra􏰀avena samutpannau vajrapā􏰀ikhagarbhakau |oM gyi sa bon las byung ba|

phyag na rdo rje mkha' snying po

pa􏰄􏰄ikāyā􏰇 s􏰂jen mantrī dak􏰃i􏰀āyā􏰇 yathākramam| |lho yi phyogs kyi snam bu la|

go rims bzhin du dgod par bya

Arisen from the syllable “o􏰇”, the mantrin should send forth Vajrapā􏰀i and Khagarbha respectively to the southern border.

                                                
291 D: dbu rgyal 292 lit.he with a voice like a drum 293 Tib: two 294 Tib: a (sun) disc 295 Tib: on the third level
 
103 156 o􏰇hū􏰇kāravini􏰃panna􏰇 lokeśa􏰇 mañjugho􏰃akam |oM dang hUM las yang dag byung|

'jig rten dbang po 'jam pa'i dbyangs

paścimāyā􏰇 s􏰂jed etān uttarāyā􏰇 puna􏰈 s􏰂jet| |'di dag nub tu dbyung bar bya|

byang gi phyogs su dbyung ba ni

Arisen from the syllables “o􏰇” and “hū􏰇”, one should send forth Loke􏰃vara and Mañjugho􏰃a296 to the west. Moreover, one should send forth to the north these: 157 o􏰇sa􏰇bījavini􏰃panna􏰇 savi􏰃kambhisamantakam |oM dang saM gi297 sa bon skyes|

sgrib sel kun tu bzang por298 bcas

ete svanāthamuku􏰄ā var􏰀ādyais tatsamā􏰈 puna􏰈| |'di dag dbu rgyan rang gi mgon|

sku mdog sogs pa de dang mtshungs

Sarvanīvara􏰀avi􏰃kambin and Samantabhadra, arisen from the syllables “o􏰇” and “sa􏰇”. These (all have) the same crowns, colours and so forth as their Lords', 158 bhujai􏰈 prahara􏰀aiś cāpi svasvādhipatibhi􏰈 sadā |phyag dang mtshon cha dag kyang ni|

rang rang gi ni bdag por mtshungs

maitreya􏰈 kevala􏰇 savye nāgapu􏰃pa􏰇300 bibharti ca| |byams pa 'ba' zhig g.yas pa ni|

klu shing me tog bsnams par mdzad

and with hands and weapons like their respective lords and Maitreya alone holds a cobra's saffron tree299 flower in the right hand. 159 sa􏰇śodhyāyatanāny ete divyanetrādidāyakā􏰈 |'di dag skye mched rnam sbyangs shing|

lha yi mig sogs stsol ba po

sattvānā􏰇 punar āgatya ni􏰃īdanty āsane􏰃u vai| |sems can skye mched sbyangs nas su|

slar byon nas ni stan la bzhugs

After thoroughly purifying the sense bases, those301 who bestow the divine eye and so forth302 on303 beings, after returning again, sit down on their very seats. 160 yamāntak􏰂nmantrabhava􏰇 k􏰂􏰃􏰀araktasitānanam |ya mAn+ta kRit sngags kyis ni|

sngags pas gshin rje gshed dbyung ba

yamāntaka􏰇 s􏰂jen mantrī sphuli􏰆gagahanākulam| |rnam par snang mdzad dbu rgyan can|

zhal ni gnag dang dkar dang dmar
'bar ba'i tshogs kyis rnam par 'khrigs

Arisen from the mantra “Yamāntak􏰂t”, one should send forth Yamāntak􏰂t with a dark blue, a red and a white face304, adorned with masses of flames305, with a Vairocana crown306.

                                                
296 i.e. Mañjuśrī 297 D: ki 298 D: kun du dbang por 299 also called “snake's heart sandalwood” 300 dVP: ma􏰃yanāgapu􏰃pa􏰇 301 i.e. the previous twelve deities - the names of the first four align with the first four āyatanas, so we might suppose all twelve deities are aligned to the twelve āyatanas. 302 i.e. eye, ear, nose, tongue etc. 303 lit.. of 304 Tib: with a black, a white and a red face
 
104 161 da􏰀􏰁a􏰇 cakra􏰇 tathā vajra􏰇 sa[11 A]vyahaste􏰃u dhārayam

dbyug pa rdo rje 'khor lo rnams
phyag g.yas na ni bsnams par mdzad

h􏰂ddeśe tarjanīpāśa􏰇 gha􏰀􏰄āparaśu􏰇 vāmata􏰈| |thugs kar sdigs mdzub zhags pa dang|

dril bu dgra sta g.yon pa na

holding a staff, wheel and vajra307 in the right hands and with the threatening gesture at the heart-centre, a noose, bell and axe in the left. 162 vighnān sa􏰇trāsayan ghorān indrādīn saga􏰀ān api |dbang po la sogs tshogs bcas dang|

mi bzad bgegs kyang skrag par mdzad

padmasūrya􏰇 samākramya pūrvasyā􏰇 diśi ti􏰃􏰄hati| |pad+ma nyi ma mnan nas ni|

shar gyi phyogs su bzhugs par gyur

Terrifying the obstructing ones and even mighty Indra etc. and their followers, after mounting a lotus and sun(-disc seat), he dwells in the eastern quarter. 163 prajñāntak􏰂nmantrabhava􏰇 ratnasambhavamaulikam |pradz+nyAn+ta kRit sngags kyi ni|

rin chen 'byung ldan dbu rgyan can

aparājita􏰇 s􏰂jen mantrī śvetābham ahibhū􏰃a􏰀am| |sku mdog dkar zhing nor bus brgyan|

gzhan gyis mi thub sngags kyis dbyung

Arisen from the mantra “Prajñāntak􏰂t”, crowned with Ratnasambhava, the mantrin should send forth Aparājita, white in appearance and adorned with snakes308, 164 sitak􏰂􏰃􏰀araktavadana􏰇 b􏰂hatkuk􏰃i􏰇 trilocanam |gsus khyim che zhing spyan gsum pa|

dkar dang gnag dang dmar ba'i zhal

da􏰇􏰃􏰄rākarālavika􏰄a􏰇 sphuli􏰆gagahanākulam| |mche ba gtsigs shing rnam par 'gyur|

'bar ba'i tshogs kyis rnam par 'khrigs

with a white, a dark blue309 and a red face, a big pot- belly and three eyes, with fangs and a hideous snarling mouth, adorned with masses of flames310, 165 vajra􏰇 da􏰀􏰁a􏰇 tathā kha􏰁ga􏰇 savyahaste􏰃u dhārayan |rdo rje dbyug pa ral gri ni|

g.yas kyi phyag na bsnams par mdzad

h􏰂ddeśe tarjanīpāśa􏰇 gha􏰀􏰄āparaśu􏰇311 vāmata􏰈| |snying gar sdigs mdzub zhags pa dang|

dril bu dgra sta g.yon pa na

holding a vajra, staff and sword in the right hands and with the threatening gesture at the heart-centre, a noose, bell and axe in the left. 166 vighnān sa􏰇trāsayan ghorān pratyālī􏰁hapadena tu |g.yon brkyang ba yi gnas pa yis|

mi bzad bgegs ni skrag par mdzad

Terrifying the obstructing ones and with left leg extended, after mounting a lotus and sun(-disc seat),

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
305 Tib: enveloped in masses of flames 306 Skt omits. 307 Tib: holding a staff, vajra and wheel 308 Tib: jewels 309 Tib: black 310 Tib: enveloped in masses of flames 311 dVP: gha􏰀􏰄āparaśu
 
105 padmasūrya􏰇 samākramya yāmyā􏰇 diśi sa tisthati| |pad+ma nyi ma mnan nas ni|

lho yi phyogs su bzhugs par gyur

he dwells in the southern quarter. 167 padmāntak􏰂nmantrabhava􏰇 hayagrīva􏰇 s􏰂jed vratī |pad+ma n+ta kRit sngags kyis ni|

brtul zhugs can kyis rta mgrin dbyung

padmarāganibha􏰇 tryak􏰃a􏰇 raktak􏰂􏰃􏰀asitānanam| |spyan gsum pad+ma rA ga'i mdog|

zhal ni dmar dang gnag dang dkar

Arisen from the mantra “Padmāntak􏰂t”, the devotee should send forth Hayagrīva, with three eyes the colour of a red lotus and with a red, a dark blue312 and a white face, 168 karālāsya􏰇 b􏰂hatkuk􏰃i􏰇 amitābhakirī􏰄inam |zhal gdangs gsus khyim che ba dang|

'od dpag med pa'i cod pan can

pratyālī􏰁hapada􏰇 vīra􏰇 sphuli􏰆gagahanākulam| |dpa' bo g.yon brkyang ba yis gnas|

'bar ba'i tshogs ni rnam par 'khrugs

a snarling mouth, a big pot-belly and an Amitābha crown (as) a hero with left leg extended, adorned with masses of flames313.

 8b   
169 padma􏰇 kha􏰁ga􏰇 ca musala􏰇 savyahaste􏰃u [11 B] bhāvayet

pad+ma ral gri gtun shing ni
g.yas kyi phyag na bsnams par mdzad

gha􏰀􏰄ā􏰇 sagarvaparaśum pāśa􏰇 savyetare􏰃u ca| |bsnyems dang bcas pas dril bu dang|

One should visualize314 a lotus, sword and mace315 in the right hands and316 a bell, axe of pride317 and a noose in the left ones. 170 padmasūrya􏰇 samāruhya vyavalokya diśo daśa |pad+ma nyi ma la gnas te|

phyogs bcu dag tu gzigs nas ni

vighnasa􏰇trāsana􏰇 k􏰂tvā vāru􏰀yā􏰇 diśi ti􏰃􏰄hati| |klu rnams skrag par mdzad nas su|

nub kyi phyogs su bzhugs par 'gyur

after mounting a lotus and sun(-disc seat), after thoroughly surveying (all) ten directions and after producing extreme fear in the obstructing ones318, he dwells in the western quarter. 171 vighnāntak􏰂nmantrabhava􏰇 dundubhisvaramaulikam |bi gh+nAn+ta kRit sngags kyis ni|

rnga sgra'i cod pan yang dag ldan

Arisen from the mantra “Vighnāntak􏰂t”, crowned with Amoghasiddhi 319 and blue as night-lotus petals,

                                                
312 Tib: black 313 Tib: wrathful within masses of flames 314 Tib: Holding 315 Tib: pestle 316 Tib. adds: having pride 317 i.e. for cutting down pride 318 Tib: the Nāgas
 
106 nīlotpaladalaśyāma􏰇 s􏰂jed am􏰂taku􏰀􏰁alim| |ut+pala sngon po'i 'dab ltar sngo320|

bdud rtsi 'khyil ba dbyung bar bya

one should send forth Am􏰂taku􏰀􏰁ali, 172 nīlaraktasitāsya􏰇 ca karālamukhavibhramam |zhal ni sngo dang dmar dang dkar|

zhal gdangs pa ni rnam par 'gyur

b􏰂hatkuk􏰃i􏰇 trinayana􏰇 raktajvālāvibhū􏰃itam| |gsus khyim che zhing spyan gsum pa|

'bar ba'i 'od kyis rnam par brgyan

with a blue, a red and a white face and a lolling, gaping mouth, a big pot-belly and three eyes, adorned with red321 light 173 viśvavajra􏰇 tatha cakra􏰇 musala􏰇 cāpi savyata􏰈 |sna tshogs rdo rje 'khor lo dang|

gtun shing rnams ni g.yas pa na

dhāraya􏰇s tarjanīpāśa􏰇 gha􏰀􏰄āparaśu􏰇 vāmata􏰈| |sdigs mdzub zhags par bcas pa dang|

dril bu dgra sta g.yon na bsnams

and holding a crossed vajra, wheel and mace322 in the right and a noose with the threatening gesture, bell and axe in the left. 174 vighnasa􏰇trāsana􏰇 k􏰂tvā pratyālī􏰁hapadena tu [first half-verse missing in D. and P.]

g.yon rkyang ba yi gnas pa yis

padmasūrya􏰇 samāruhya kauberyā􏰇 diśi ti􏰃􏰄hati| |pad+ma nyi ma mnan nas ni|

byang gi phyogs su bzhugs par gyur

After producing extreme fear in the obstructing ones323 and with left leg extended, after mounting a lotus and sun(-disc seat), he dwells in the northern quarter324. 175 svamantrāk􏰃arani􏰃pannam acala􏰇 ca s􏰂jet puna􏰈 |rang gi sngags kyis bskyed pa yis|

mi g.yo ba yang dbyung bar bya

indranīlaprabha􏰇 tryak􏰃a􏰇 śrīvairocanamaulikam| |spyan gsum in+dra nI la'i mdog|

dbu rgyan rnam par snang mdzad dpal

Arisen from his own mantra, one should send forth Acala, bright as sapphire, with three eyes, crowned with venerable Vairocana, 176 da􏰇􏰃􏰄rākarālavadana􏰇 k􏰂􏰃􏰀araktasitānanam |mche ba rnam par gtsigs pa'i zhal|

zhal ni gnag dang dmar dang dkar

with a hideous snarling mouth and a dark blue325, a red and a white face, loud laughing howls, terrifying,

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
319 lit.. he with a voice like a drum 320 D: ljang 321 Tib: flaming 322 Tib: pestle 323 Tib. omits 324 lit. quarter of Kubera 325 Tib: black
 
107 a􏰄􏰄ahāsarava􏰇 ghora􏰇 b􏰂hatkuk􏰃i􏰇 mahābalam| |mi bzad ha ha zhes bzhad sgra|

gsus khyim che zhing stobs po che

with326, a big pot-belly and (showing) great power. 177 kha􏰁ga􏰇 vajra􏰇 tathā cakra􏰇 savyahaste􏰃u dhārayet |ral gri rdo rje 'khor lo rnams|

g.yas pa'i phyag na bsnams par mdzad

ta[12 A]rjanī􏰇 cāpi paraśu􏰇 pāśa􏰇 vāme􏰃u pā􏰀i􏰃u| |sdigs mdzub dang ni dgra sta dang|

zhags pa g.yon pa'i phyag na bsnams

One should hold in the right hands a sword, vajra and wheel and in the left ones a threatening gesture, axe and noose. 178 vighnān jvarādikān hatvā pratyālī􏰁hapadena tu |rims sogs 'jigs pa'i gdon 'joms te|

g.yon brkyang ba yi gnas pa yis

padmasūrya􏰇 samāruhya vahnisthāne sa ti􏰃􏰄hati| |pad+ma nyi ma la gnas nas|

shar lho mtshams su bzhugs par gyur

After destroying the obstructing ones who cause diseases and with left leg extended, after mounting a lotus and sun(-disc seat), he dwells in the south- eastern quarter327. 179 svamantrāk􏰃arani􏰃panna􏰇 􏰄arkvirāja􏰇 s􏰂jed vratī |rang gi sngags kyis bskyed pa yi|

brtul zhugs can gyis 'dod rgyal dbyung

indranīlaprabha􏰇 vīra􏰇 ratnasambhavamaulikam| |drag po in+dra nI la'i mdog|

rin chen 'byung ldan dbu rgyan can

Arisen from his own mantra, the devotee should send forth 􏰅akkirāja, heroic328 and bright as sapphire, crowned with Ratnasambhava, 180 k􏰂􏰃􏰀araktasitāsya􏰇 ca b􏰂hatkuksi􏰇 bhayānakam |zhal ni gnag dang dmar dang dkar|

spyan gsum mche ba 'jigs su rung

dadhāna􏰇 vajra􏰇 hū􏰇kāramudrā􏰇 pā􏰀idvayena tu| |phyag gnyis rdo rje hUM mdzad kyis|

phyag rgya dag ni 'ching bar mdzad

with a dark blue329, a red and a white face, a big pot- belly and having a terrifying appearance330, with two hands in the vajra-gesture of making a “hū􏰇” syllable, 181 vajra􏰇 kha􏰁ga􏰇 ca savyābhyā􏰇 vāmata􏰈 pāśam a􏰆kuśam

rdo rje ral gri g.yas dag na
g.yon na zhags pa lcags kyu'o

pratyāhī􏰁hena sūryastho nair􏰂tyā􏰇 vighnanāśaka􏰈| |bden bral bgegs ni 'joms pa'o|

g.yon brkyan gnas pas nyi mar bzhugs

and a vajra and sword in the (other) two right ones, a noose and elephant goad on the left. (After) destroying the obstructing ones331, with left leg extended, he dwells on a sun(-disc seat) in the south- west332.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
326 Tib: terrifying with roaring laughs of “ha ha” 327 lit. abode of fire 328 Tib: wrathful 329 Tib: black 330 Tib: three eyes and terrifying fangs 331 Tib. adds: in the south-west
 
108
 9a   
182 svamantrāk􏰃arani􏰃panna􏰇 nīlada􏰀􏰁a􏰇 s􏰂jed vratī |rang gi sngags kyis bskyed pa yi|

brtul zhugs can gyis dbyug sngon bskyed

nīlameghanibha􏰇 tryak􏰃am amitābhakirī􏰄inam| |spyan gsum sprin sngon lta bu ste|

'od dpag med pa'i dbu rgyan can

Arisen from his own mantra, the devotee should send forth Nīlada􏰀􏰁a, with the appearance of a dark blue cloud, three eyes and crowned with Amitābha. 183 nīlaraktasitāsya􏰇 ca b􏰂hatkuk􏰃i􏰇 bhayāvaha􏰇 |zhal ni sngo dang dkar dang dmar|

gsus khyim che shing 'jigs par mdzad

da􏰀􏰁a􏰇 kha􏰁ga􏰇 tathā cakra􏰇 savyahaste􏰃u dhārayan| |dbyug pa ral gri 'khor lo ni|

g.yas kyi phyag na bsnams par mdzad

with a blue, a red and a white face333, and a big pot- belly; a bringer of fear, holding a staff, sword and wheel in the right hands and 184 h􏰂ddeśe tarjanīpāśa􏰇 padma􏰇 parśu􏰇 ca vāmata􏰈 |snying gar sdigs mdzub zhags pa dang|

dgra sta rnams ni g.yon na bsnams

hatvety upadravabhaya􏰇 pratyālī􏰁hapade sthita􏰈| |yams kyi 'jigs pa bsal nas ni|

gtum po g.yon brkyang gnas pa yis

with the threatening gesture at the heart-centre, a lotus and axe334 on the left. After overcoming dreadful calamity and335 standing with left leg extended, 185 padmasūrya􏰇 samāruhya vāyavyā􏰇 diśi ti􏰃􏰄hati |pad+ma nyi ma la gnas te|

nub byang mtshams su bzhugs par gyur

svamantrāk􏰃arani􏰃panna􏰇 dundubhi[12 B]svaramaulikam| |rang gi sngags kyis bskyed pa yi|

rnga sgra yis ni dbu rgyan can

after mounting a lotus and sun(-disc seat), he dwells in the north-western336 quarter. Arisen from his own mantra and crowned with Amoghasiddhi337, 186 mahābala􏰇 s􏰂jen mantrī nīlotpaladalaprabha􏰇 |stobs po che ni sngags pas dbyung|

ut+pala sngon po'i mdog 'dra ba

k􏰂􏰃􏰀araktasitāsya􏰇 ca tryak􏰃a􏰇 bhairavanāditam| |zhal ni gnag dang dmar dang dkar|

spyan gsum 'jigs pa'i sgra dang ldan

the mantrin should send forth Mahābala, brilliant as night-lotus petals, with a dark blue , a red and a white face, three eyes and making a terrifying noise, 187 nāgabhū􏰃itasarvā􏰆ga􏰇 b􏰂hatkuk􏰃i􏰇 bhayānakam |yan lag thams cad sbrul gyis brgyan|

gsus khyim che shing 'jigs par byed

with all his limbs adorned with snakes, a big pot- belly and having a terrifying appearance, holding a

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
332 Skt. only 333 Tib: a blue, a white and a red face 334 Tib: an axe etc. 335 Tib. adds: being fierce 336 lit. windy 337 lit. he with a voice like a drum
 
109 da􏰀􏰁a􏰇 kha􏰁ga􏰇 tathā cakra􏰇 savyahaste􏰃u dhārayan| |dbyug pa ral gri 'khor lo ni|

g.yas kyi phyag na bsnams par mdzad

staff, sword and wheel in the right hands and 188 h􏰂ddeśe tarjanīpāśa􏰇 padma􏰇338 parśu􏰇 ca vāmata􏰈 |snying gar sdigs mdzub zhags pa dang|

dgra sta rnams ni g.yon na bsnams

􏰁ākinyādibhayadhva􏰇sī pratyālī􏰁hapadena sa􏰈| |g.yon brkyang ba yi gnas pa yis|

mkha' 'gro la sogs 'jigs pa 'joms

with the threatening gesture at the heart-centre, a lotus and axe339 on the left. Vanquishing the dreadful 􏰁ākinīs and so on and standing with left leg extended, he 189 padmasūrya􏰇 samāruhya aiśānyā􏰇 diśi ti􏰃􏰄hati |pad+ma nyi ma la gnas te|

byang shar mtshams su bzhugs par gyur

svamantrāk􏰃arani􏰃panna􏰇 s􏰂jed u􏰃􏰀ī􏰃cakri􏰀am| |rang gi sngags kyis bskyed yi|

gtsug tor 'khor los sgyur ba dbyung

after mounting a lotus and sun(-disc seat), dwells in the north-eastern quarter. Arisen from his own mantra, one should send forth U􏰃􏰀ī􏰃acakravartī, 190 ākāśaśyāmaka􏰇 ghoram ak􏰃obhyak􏰂taśekharam |mkha' ltar sngo bsangs 'jigs pa po|

mi bskyod pas ni dbu rgyan byas

k􏰂􏰃􏰀araktasitāsya􏰇 ca tryak􏰃a􏰇 lambodara􏰇 vibhum| |zhal ni sngo dang dmar dang dkar|

gtso bo spyan gsum gsus pa 'phyang

as a sovereign, blue as the sky, terrifying, with Ak􏰃obhya placed on his crown, a dark blue340, a red and a white face, three eyes and a pot-belly hanging down, 191 vāmadak􏰃i􏰀āhastābhyām u􏰃􏰀ī􏰃a􏰇 mūrdhni dhārayan |g.yas g.yon gnyis kyi phyag gnyis kyis|

spyi bor gtsug tor 'dzin par mdzad

vajrapadma􏰇 ca savyābhyā􏰇 tarjanīkha􏰁gam anyata􏰈| |rdo rje pad+ma g.yas dag na|

sdigs mdzub ral gri g.yon na bsnams

holding the u􏰃􏰀ī􏰃a at the crown with both a left and a right hand, a vajra and lotus with the (other) two right ones and the threatening gesture and sword with the others341. 192 sarvopadravavidhva􏰇sī pratyālī􏰁hapadodyata􏰈 |'tshe ba thams cad rnam 'jig cing|

gtum po g.yon brkyang gnas pa yis

padmasūrya􏰇 samāruhya brahmasthāne sa ti􏰃􏰄hati| |pad+ma nyi ma la gnas te|

tshangs pa'i gnas su de bzhugs pa'o

Overcoming all calamities and standing with left leg extended, after mounting a lotus and sun(-disc seat), he dwells in the direction of the zenith342. 193 svamantrāk􏰃aranini􏰃panna􏰇 sumbharāja􏰇 s􏰂jed vratī |rang gi sngags kyis bskyed pa yi|

brtul zhugs can gyis gnod mdzes dbyung

ākāśasuprabha􏰇 tryak􏰃a􏰇 k􏰂􏰃􏰀araktasitānanam| |spyan gsum nam mkha' lta bu'i mdog| Arisen from his own mantra, the devotee should send forth Sumbharāja, radiant as the sky, with three eyes, and

                                                
338 dVP: omits 339 Tib: an axe etc. 340 Tib: blue 341 Tib: on the left 342 lit. of Brahma
 
110
 9b 
 |zhal ni gnag dang dmar dang dkar|  
a dark blue343, a red and a white face, 194 b􏰂htkuk􏰃i􏰇 ka[13 A]rālāsyam ak􏰃obhyak􏰂taśekharam |gsus khyim che zhing 'jigs pa'i zhal|

mi bskyod pas ni dbu rgyan byas

vajra􏰇 cakra􏰇 tathā ratna􏰇 savyahaste􏰃u dhārayan| |rdo rje 'khor lo rin chen ni|

g.yas pa'i phyag na 'dzin par mdzad

a big pot-belly, a snarling mouth, with Ak􏰃obhya placed on his crown and holding a vajra, wheel and jewel in the right hands 195 h􏰂ddeśe tarjanīpāśa􏰇 padmakha􏰁ga􏰇 ca vāmata􏰈 |snying gar sdigs mdzub zhags pa dang|

pad+ma ral gri g.yon na bsnams

kālakū􏰄ādika􏰇 sarvavi􏰃a􏰇 sthāvavajra􏰆gamam| |rgyu ba dang ni gnas pa'i dug|

ka la ku ta sogs kun dang

with the threatening gesture at the heart-centre, a lotus and sword in the left. All the moving and unmoving poisons - “Kālakū􏰄a” and so on 196 hatvā vināyakān sarvān śānti􏰇 k􏰂tvā tu sarvata􏰈 |bgegs kyi bdag po kun bcom ste|

thams cad zhi bar mdzad nas ni

ajñā􏰇 sampādya nikhilā􏰇 pratyālī􏰁hapade sthita􏰈| |ma lus bka' ni rdzogs byas la|

g.yon brkyang ba yi gnas pa yis

having been destroyed and after pacifying all obstacles and fulfilling the ignorant everywhere344, standing with left leg extended, 197 padmasūrya􏰇 samāruhya bhuvo 'dhastāt sa ti􏰃􏰄hati| |pad+ma nyi ma la gnas te|

sa yi 'og tu de bzhugs so

after mounting a lotus and sun(-disc seat), he dwells below the ground. 198 uts􏰂jya ma􏰀􏰁ala􏰇 sarva􏰇 dvātri􏰇śaddevatāmayam |lha ni sum cu gnyis rang bzhin|

dkyil 'khor thams cad bskyed nas ni

cakramadhyasthito bhūtvā sūk􏰃mayogam athārabhet| |'khor lo'i dbus su gnas gyur na|

de nas phra mo'i rnal 'byor brtsam

After setting out the ma􏰀􏰁ala of all thirty-two deities and being seated in the centre of the circle, one should begin the “subtle yoga”. 199 nāsāgre sar􏰃apa􏰇 cintet sar􏰃ape sacarācaram |sna yi rtse mor yungs kar bsam|

'gro dang mi 'gro yungs kar la

bhāvayej jñānapada􏰇 ramya􏰇 rahasya􏰇 jñānakalpitam|347 |gsang ba'i sngags kyis brtags pa yi|

ye shes mchog gi gnas bsgom mo

At the tip of the nose, one should imagine a mustard seed and one should visualize inside the mustard seed both that which moves and that which does not move345 as the abode of wisdom, delightful, subtle and brought about by wisdom346.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
343 Tib: black 344 Tib: bringing the Buddha-word to all without exception 345 i.e. everything at all
 
111 200 pañcavar􏰀a􏰇 mahāratna􏰇 sar􏰃apasthūlamātrakam |rin chen kha dog sna lnga la|

yungs kar gyi ni 'bru tshod tsam

nāsikāgre prayatnena bhāvayed yogata􏰈 sadā|348 |sna yi rtse mor nan tan du|

rnal 'byor rig pas rtag tu bsgom

Continually by means of yoga, one should imagine diligently at the tip of the nose a five coloured precious jewel the size of a mustard seed. 201 sthira􏰇 tu sphārayed ratnam asthira􏰇 naiva sphārayet |rin chen brtan par gyur nas spro|

brtan par ma gyur de mi spro

sphā[13 B]rayet pravarair meghair buddhajavālāsamaprabhai􏰈|349

sangs rgyas 'bar ba'i 'od mnyam pa
rab mchog sprin ni spro bar bya

(When) the jewel has become stable, one should send it forth; (when) it is not stable, one should not send it forth: one should send it forth with clouds of the most excellent requisites (having) a radiance like that of the Buddhas. 202 bhik􏰃āśinā na japtavya􏰇 na ca bhaik􏰃arato bhavet |slong mo za zhing mi bzlas te|

ma bslangs pa la'ang chags mi bya

japen mantram abhinnā􏰆ga􏰇 sarvakāmopabhogak􏰂t|350 |'dod pa kun las longs spyod cing|

sngags kyi yan lag ma nyams bzlas

With the consuming of alms food, it ought not to be prayed for, nor should there be enjoyment of the alms food. One should recite the mantra, entire and whole: (there will be) the achievement of everything one wants to enjoy. [202 alternative] cakravajramahāratnai􏰈 padmakha􏰁gadharāyudhai􏰈 [|’khor lo rdo rje rin chen dang|

padma ral gri mtshon chen ‘dzin

bodhisattvamahāmeghai􏰈 sphārayet sphara􏰀ātmaka􏰈351] |byang chub sems dpa’i sprin chen rnams|

spro ba’i bdag nyid can gyis spro

[Having the nature of one who is radiating, one should send (it) forth with great clouds of Bodhisattvas holding (their) implements of wheel, vajra, precious jewel, lotus and sword.] 203 uccārya sa􏰇sphared vajra􏰇 samāptan sa􏰇hāram ādiśet |brjod nas rdo rje spro ba ni|

rdzogs nas rab tu bsdu bar bya

ida􏰇 tat sarvabuddhānā􏰇 japokta􏰇 paramārthata iti|353 |'di ni sangs rgyas thams cad kyi|

don dam pa yi bzlas par bshad

After speaking thus, one should send forth the vajra. After doing both (these things), one should bring it back: so this recitation (of the mantras) of all the Buddhas is said (to be) sublime352.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
346 Tib: the abode of the highest wisdom, determined through secret mantra 347 GST 6.9 348 GST 3.12, omitted by Tripathi 349 GST 3.13 350 GST 7.4 – this verse seems oddly out of context, even though it is present in both the Sanskrit and Tibetan versions. The pattern of verses suggests this should either be GST 3.14 or 13.14. 13.14 seems unlikely as it offers an alternative to what it proposes in 13.12. On the other hand, 3.14 concludes what was begun in 3.13. See Fremantle 1971: 73 & 38. 351 GST 3.14
 
112 204 sūk􏰃mayogajapa􏰇 cāpi dvidhā k􏰂tvā yathāruci |phra mo'i rnal 'byor bzlas pa yang|

ci 'dod par ni rnam gnyis bya

ātmāna􏰇 ca punar mantrī tathatāyā􏰇 praveśayet| |slar yang sngags pas bdag nyid ni|

de bzhin nyid la gzhug par bya

After reciting the “subtle yoga” in two parts, as one wishes, one (as) a mantrin should bring oneself into the state of true reality. 205 ma􏰀􏰁alathāś caturdevyo na paśyantyas tata􏰈 patim |de nas dkyil 'khor gnas pa 'di|

lha mos bdag po ma mthong bas

gāthācatu􏰃􏰄ayenettha􏰇 bodhayanti mahāsukham| |tshigs su bcad pa 'di bzhi yis|

bde ba chen po skul bar byed

Then, not seeing (their) Lord, the four goddesses seated in the ma􏰀􏰁ala so arouse him to great bliss with a quartet of songs. 206 tva􏰇 vajrasattva bhuvaneśvara sattvadhāto |sems can khams na gnas kyi dbang phyug khyod ni rdo rje'i thugs| trāyāhi mā􏰇 ratimanojña mahārthakāmai􏰈 |dga' ba yid 'ong don chen 'dod pas bdag la bskyab tu gsol| kāmāhi mā􏰇 janaka sattvamahāgrabandho |mgon po gal te de ring bdag ni gson par mchis bzhed na| yadīcchase jīvatu mahya nātha|356 |sems can yab chen gnyen mchog bdag la dgyes par mdzad du gsol| O you (of) vajra-nature354, Lord abiding in the realm of beings, who takes pleasure in enjoyment, protect me with (your) desire for the great goal, love me, O father (who has) the greatest attachment to beings, if you wish (me) to continue living, O great Lord355.

 10a   
207 tva􏰇 vajrakāya bahusattvapriyāgracakra |rdo rje sku khyod bka' yi 'khor lo sems can kun la phan| buddhārthabodhiparamārthahitānudarśī |sangs rgyas don du byang chub mchog bsgrub rab tu phan par gzigs| rāge􏰀a rāgasamayā􏰇 mā􏰇359 kāmayasva |mgon po gal te de ring bdag ni gson par mchis bzhed na| O you (of) vajra-body, beloved of all beings357, cakra of command, goal of Buddhas, true nature of enlightenment, who sees what is beneficial, love me who is committed to passion with (your) passion, if you wish (me) to continue living, O great Lord358.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
352 Tib: it is explained as the reciting of the highest purpose of all the Buddhas 353 GST 13.15 (part). This may be a quotation from an explanatory tantra as it does not match completely. GST has “jñānomīlitacak􏰃u􏰃ām” for “japokta􏰇 paramārthata” 354 Skt: lit. vajra-being; Tib: vajra-mind 355 Tib: O Lord, if you agree to (my) living today, great father of beings, best of kinsmen, delight in me 356 GST 17.72 357 Tib: helper of all beings
 
113 yadīcchase jīvatu mahya nātha|360 |'dod chags dam tshig chags pas bdag la dgyes par mdzad du gsol| 208 tva􏰇 vajravāca sakalasya hitānukampī |khyod ni rdo rje gsung ste kun la phan zhing thugs brtse ba| lokārthakāryakara􏰀e sada samprav􏰂tta |'jig rten dag gi dgos pa'i don mdzad pa la rtag tu brtson| kāmāhi mā􏰇 suratacarya samantabhadra |mgon po gal te de ring bdag ni gson par mchis bzhed na| yadīcchase jī[14 A]vatu mahya nātha362,363 |spyod pa dri med kun tu bzang pos bdag la dgyes par mdzod| O you (of) vajra-speech, compassionate benefactor of all, forever engaged in acts needed for the goal of the world, love me, (you of) perfect goodness, engaging in great joy, if you wish (me) to continue living, O great Lord361. 209 tva􏰇 vajrakāma samayāgra mahāhitārtha |khyod ni rdo rje'i thugs364 te dam tshig mchog gi phan don che| sambuddhava􏰇śatilaka􏰈 samatānukampī |yang dag rdzogs sangs rgyas kyi gdung mchog mnyam pa nyid gzigs pa| kāmāhi mā􏰇 gu􏰀anidhi􏰇 bahuratnabhūtam366,367 |mgon po gal te de ring bdag ni gson par mchis bzhed na| yadīcchase jīvatu mahya nātha| |yon tan rin chen mang po'i gter gyur bdag la dgyes par mdzod| O you (of) vajra-desire, supreme commitment, goal of highest good, ornament of the lineage of perfect Buddhas, compassionate (to all) alike, love me, who is become a treasury of good qualities, a great jewel, if you wish (me) to continue living, O great Lord.365 210 evam utthāpita􏰇 nātha􏰇 sadbhūtagu􏰀akīrtanai􏰈 |de ltar yang dag yon tan ni|

brjod pas mgon po de bskul nas

The Lord (being) thus roused by (these) recitations of his perfect qualities, the (female) Tathāgatas together

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
358 Tib: O Lord, if you agree to (my) living today, O committment of passion, through (your) passion, delight in me 359 hyp: mā􏰇 (to match the other three verses, as does Tib.) Both dVP. and Trp. give mama 360 GST 17.73 361 Tib: O Lord, if you agree to (my) living today, (you) engaging in perfect (activities), (you of) perfect goodness, delight in me 362 dVP: nātha􏰈 363 GST 17.74 364 Nāgārjuna P4788 11a2: ‘dod pa which matches Tib. GST 17.75 365 Tib: best of the lineage of completely perfect Buddhas, perceiving (all) as the same, O Lord, if you agree to (my) living today, delight in me who is become a treasury of many excellent jewels. 366 dVP: bahuratnabhūtām 367 GST 17.75
 
114 ak􏰃obhyādisvabhāvena sa􏰇stuvanti tathāgatā􏰈| |mi bskyod la sogs ngo bo yis|

de bzhin gshegs pa bstod par mdzad

praise (him) as having the natures of Ak􏰃obhya and so forth. 211 ak􏰃obhyavajra mahājñāna vajradhātumahābudha |mi bskyod pa ni rdo rje che|

rdo rje dbyings ni mkha' chen po

trima􏰀􏰁ala trivajrāgra bhā􏰃aguhya namo 'stu te|369 |rdo rje gsum mchog dkyil 'khor gsum|

gsang ba'i dbyangs la phyag 'tshal lo

Homage to you368, O Ak􏰃obhya-vajra, extremely wise, great sage of the vajra-realm, threefold ma􏰀􏰁ala, supreme triple vajra, O mystic speech. 212 vairocana mahāśuddha vajraśānta mahārate |rnam par snang mdzad rab tu dag|

rdo rje zhi ba dga' ba che

prak􏰂tiprabhāsvarān dharmān deśavajra namo 'stu te|372 |rang bzhin gyis ni 'od gsal mchog|

ston pa rdo rje phyag 'tshal lo

Homage to you368, O Vairocana, extremely pure, vajra of peace, great bliss, to the teachings, extremely370 luminous by nature, O vajra teacher371. 213 ratnarāja sugāmbhīra khavajrākāśanirmala |rin chen rgyal po rab tu zab|

rdo rje nam mkha' dri ma med

svabhāvaśuddha nirlepa kāyavajra namo 'stu te|376 |dngos nyid dag pa gos med pa|

gsang ba'i gsung la phyag 'tshal lo

Homage to you368, O Ratnarāja373, extremely deep, vajra of space374, pristine (as) the sky, pure (by) nature, undefiled, O vajra body375. 214 vajrāmitamahārāja nirvikalpa khavajri􏰀am |rdo rje mi 'chi 'dod chags che|

mi rtog nam mkha'i rdo rje 'dzin

rāgapāramitāprāpta bhā􏰃avajra namo 'stu te|378 |'dod chags pha rol phyin pa brnyes|

rdo rje gsung la phyag 'tshal lo

Homage to you368, O Amita377, great king, free from conceptual thought, holder of the vajra of space, (who) has achieved the transcendence of passion, O vajra speech.

                                                
368 Skt: lit. One should pay homage to you; Tib: I pay homage 369 GST 17.1 370 Tib. only 371 lit. one who shows the way 372 GST 17.2 373 i.e. Ratnasambhava 374 Skt. only 375 Tib: secret speech 376 GST 17.3 377 i.e. Amitābha 378 GST 17.4
 
115 215 amoghavajra sambuddha sarvāśāparipūraka |rdo rje dga' ba gdon mi za|

bsam pa thams cad yongs rdzogs pa

śuddhasvabhāvasambhūta vajrasattva namo 'stu te|381 |sangs rgyas ngo bo nyid las byung|

rdo rje sems dpa' phyag 'tshal lo

Homage to you368, O Amoghvajra379, perfect Buddha, fulfiller of all desires, arisen from inherent purity380, O vajra being. 216 nutvātha buddhair anurāgya cakra􏰇 |de nas 'khor lo sangs rgyas kyis bstod gsol| prakāśya guhya􏰇 parama􏰇 yathā yathā| |mchog tu gsang ba ji bzhin don spyad nas| svakāyacakre viniveśya cakra􏰇 |rang gi 'khor lo la ni 'khor lo gzhug| mahāsukhas ti􏰃􏰄hati nātha eka􏰈| |mgon po bde ba chen po gcig po bzhugs| “After praising and being delighted by the Buddhas, manifesting the wheel382, making the highest secret one and so much more evident in one's own body- wheel383 and after setting out the wheel382, one abides (in) great bliss, (being) the Lord alone.

 10b   
217 eva􏰇 catur384 yoga[14 B]karas tu yogī |de ltar rnal 'byor bzhi byed rnal 'byor pa| hū􏰇kāragarbha􏰇 pravicintya lokam| |hUM snying pos 'jig rten rab tu bsgom| d􏰂􏰃􏰄vā jagattadbhavavajrasattva􏰇 |de byung gro kun rdo rje sems dpar bsam| vyutthāya taddhīr vicared yathāvad iti| |langs nas 'gro la bltas te ji bzhin spyad par bya| Then, after the yogin (who) has undertaken the four yogas has imagined the world in the centre of the “hū􏰇” syllable (and) seen the beings there arisen as vajra-beings, so after (they) have arisen everywhere, (this) meditation should go forth in the same manner385.” 218 samādhim ālambayan mantrī anutpattir yadā bhavet |sngags pas ting 'dzin dmigs pa'i tshe|

gang tshe lus ni bskams gyur na

vicintayed ima􏰇 yoga􏰇 kāyavākcittaprī􏰀anam| |lus ngag yid ni tshim byed pa'i|

sbyor ba 'di ni bsgom par bya

Whenever a mantrin clinging to meditation would become emaciated, he should reflect upon this practice of pleasing the body, speech and mind. 219 vitastimātram ākramya mūrdhni ma􏰀􏰁alakalpanā |mtho gang tsam gyis dpags pa ru|

spyi bor dkyil 'khor bsgom par bya

After setting the ma􏰀􏰁ala on one's head, held a span apart, and imagining within the “o􏰇” syllable the

                                                
379 i.e. Amoghasiddhi 380 Tib: the inherent nature of Buddha 381 GST 17.5 382 i.e. the ma􏰀􏰁ala 383 i.e. the body ma􏰀􏰁ala 384 dVP: omits 385 Tib: he should imagine those beings arisen as vajra-beings. After they have (so) arisen, he should consider the beings and should undertake practice in just the same way.
 
116 o􏰇kāra􏰇 tatraga􏰇 dhyātvā pañcam􏰂tanipātanam| |bdud rtsi lnga ni nges 'bebs pa'i|

oM ni de ru bsam par bya

five nectars raining down, 220 anena vajrayogena tejasvī bhavati k􏰃a􏰀āt |rdo rje sbyor ba 'di yis ni|

skad cig gis ni gzi can 'gyur

kāyavākcittasausthitya􏰇 labhate nātra sa􏰇śaya􏰈| |lus ngag yid ni bde ba dag|

thob 'gyur 'di la the tshom med

By this vajra-practice, one becomes radiant in an instant and there is no doubt that one attains a virtuous body, speech and mind. 221 evam abhyāsato mantrī śodhayed bodhayet tathā |de ltar slob pa'i sngags pa yis|

sbyangs dang de bzhin rtogs par bya

h􏰂t ka􏰀􏰄ha􏰇 caiva sa􏰇śodhya prī􏰀ayec ca tathāgatān| |lkog ma snying ga legs sbyangs shing|

de bzhin gshegs rnams tshim par bya

So, the mantrin, (by) constant repetition386 will purify (oneself) and in that way will come to understanding. So after thoroughly purifying the heart and throat centres, one would please the Tathāgatas 222 hū􏰇kāre􏰀a ca sa􏰇śodhya ā􏰈kāre􏰀a tu bodhayet |hUM kis legs par sbyangs byas la|

yi ge AH yis rtogs byas te

jvālayet pra􏰀avākrāntam iyam āhāraśodhanā| |oM gyis mnan nas sbar bar bya|

'di ni kha zas sbyang bya ba'o

and after thoroughly purifying (oneself) with the “hū􏰇” syllable, one should come to understanding through the “ā􏰈” syllable. Purifying the food- offering, one should cause the “o􏰇” syllable to blaze up. 223 ka􏰀􏰄he śa􏰆kha􏰇 vicintyādau tasmin hrī􏰈kārasambhavam

dang po mgrin pa'i mtshams bsam pa
der ni hrIH las byung ba yi

padmam a􏰃􏰄adala􏰇 cinted dhū􏰇kāra􏰇 kar􏰀ikopari| |pad+ma 'dab ma brgyad pa bsgom|

lte ba'i nang du yi ge hUM

First, after imagining a conch387 at the throat (and) there387 an eight-petalled lotus arisen from a “hrī􏰈” syllable, one should imagine a “hū􏰇” syllable in (its) centre. 224 hū􏰇kāraja􏰇 mahāvajra􏰇 pañcaśūka􏰇 vibhāvayet |hUM las skyes pa'i rdo rje che|

rtse mo lnga pa rnam par bsam

madhyaśūkāgre sa􏰇cinted o􏰇kāra􏰇 ka􏰀􏰄haśodhanam| |rtse mo dbus ma'i steng du ni|

oM bsam lkog ma sbyang ba'o

One should visualize a great five-pointed vajra arisen from the “hū􏰇” syllable (and) consider within the middle of the tips of the prongs an “o􏰇” syllable, purifying (one's) throat.

                                                
386 Tib: (by) learning 387 Skt. only
 
117 225 meghanāda􏰇 h􏰂di dhyātvā tri[15 A]śikhāgni􏰇 tata􏰈 spharet

sprin gyi sgra ni snying gar sam
rtse gsum me ni de la spro

tatrāhāra􏰇 ca juhuyād homamādhyātmika􏰇 tvidam| |der ni bza' ba bsreg pa dag|

'di ni nang gi sbyin sreg yin

After imagining a thunderclap at the heart, one should send forth a trident of fire and then make388 the food-offering: this is then the inner fire- offering. 226 vāyavya􏰇 dīpayad agni􏰇 vāru􏰀a􏰇 pacate tu sa􏰈 |rlung gis me ni sbar byed pa|

der ni chu gang 'tshed par byed

māhendrama􏰀􏰁ala􏰇 sthāna􏰇 yatra sa􏰇carate havi􏰈| |dbang chen dkyil 'khor gnas su ni|

gang du me ni rgyu ba dag

The wind makes the fire blaze, which boils the water: the offering appears389, located in the greatly powerful ma􏰀􏰁ala. 227 anna􏰇 pāna􏰇 ca yat ki􏰇cit tat sarva􏰇 vāru􏰀ena tu |bza' ba dang ni btung ba rnams|

gang ci yang390 rung ba chu'i dkyil 'khor

aśana􏰇 mukhapadmena h􏰂tpadma􏰇 sampraveśayet| |bza' ba kha yi pad+ma las|

snying ga'i pad+mar yang dag gzhug

Whatsoever food and drink (there is), all that food, with the water391 should enter the lotus at the heart392 by393 the lotus of the mouth394. 228 nābhipadmagata􏰇 paścāt sampu􏰄īkara􏰀ayogata􏰈 |lte ba'i dkyil 'khor phyin 'og tu|

kha sbyar ba yi sbyor ba yis

gudapadmād vinigatya bhasmānta􏰇 ca vinirdiśet| |gsang ba'i pad+ma las byung ba|

thal ba'i mthar ni rnam par brtag

(It being) gone down below the central lotus395, by the practice of complete union, after coming forth from the secret lotus396, one should recognize it as ultimately (just) ash. 229 na jarā nāpi rāgaś ca na m􏰂tyur na vi􏰃ādikam |rims nad med cing nad kyang med|

dug la sogs pas mi 'chi la

nākālamara􏰀a􏰇 tasya sarvopadravanāśanam iti| |de ni dus min 'chi mi 'gyur|

'tshe ba thams cad rnam 'joms pa'o

Neither old age nor sickness nor dying nor poison and so on: no untimely death (is there) for397 one (who has) overcome all misfortune.

                                                
388 Tib: make by burning 389 Tib: the fire roams throughout 390 D: omits 391 Tib: (they) are the water ma􏰀􏰁ala. The food . . . 392 i.e. heart-cakra 393 Tib: from 394 i.e. throat cakra 395 i.e. heart cakra 396 i.e. secret place cakra 397 lit. of
 
118 230 śrīvajramālāvaramanthanena |rdo rje phreng ba dpal mchog srub shing gis| gū􏰁ha􏰇 samājāmbunidhi􏰇 mathitvā |gsang 'dus sbas chu'i rgya mtsho bsrubs pa las| yat sādhanā􏰆gām􏰂tam āpi tena |sgrub pa'i yan lag bdud rtsi gang thob des|
 11a 
loka􏰈 samasto 'maratām upaitu| |'jig rten ma lus 'chi med myur thob shog| After churning the ocean of the secret assembly398 with the churning-stick of the venerable vajra- garland399 (and) producing400 the nectar-limbs of (this) practice, the whole world should reach the deathless state.
     
pi􏰀􏰁īkramasādhana􏰇 samāptam|| k􏰂tir ācāryaśrīnāgārjunapādānām||

chen po klu sgrub kyis mdzad rdzogs so|401 The pi􏰀􏰁īkrama sādhana [alt. the sādhana of the condensed method], a work of402 the venerable Śrī Nāgārjuna, is completed.

 ||rgya gar gyi mkhan po A tsA rya 
shrad+dhA ka ra wa rma dang|
 |zhu chen gyi lo tsA ba ban+de rin chen 
bzang pos bsgyur cing zhus te gtan la phab pa403|| Translated, edited and finalized by the master Ācārya Śraddhakaravarma of India and translator and principal editor Rin-chen bZang-po
slad kyi rgya gar gyi mkhan po bla ma rje 
btsun rdo rje 'chang chen po re ben+ta'i zhal snga nas| chag lo tsA ba dge slong chos rje dpal gyis ma g+ha d+ha'i dpe ltar legs par bcos shing gtan la phab pa'o||404 Later determined and well set down in Magadha by the translator Chag Chos-rje dPal, in the presence of the master, guru (and) very reverend mahāvajradhara Ravīndraruci405 of India.
                                                
398 i.e. Guhyasamāja 399 T455 Vajramālā Guhyasamaja Explantory Tantra 400 lit. obtaining 401 P4788: bsdus pa'i rim pa'i bsgrub thabs| slob dpon chen po dpal klu sgrub kyi zhal snga nas mdzad pa rdzogs so 402 P4788: (made) in the presence of . . . 403 P4788: pa'o 404 P4788 only – also related in Blue Annals (Roerich 1949: 366.). 405 fl. 1200-1250CE (Roerich 1949: 1057-1058.). 119 Appendix E. Bibliography Canonical sources Canonical sources Canonical sources Canonical sources
 
b bb bk kk ka' a' a' a'
 
'gyur 
'gyur 'gyur 'gyur (Kangyur)
(Kangyur) 
(Kangyur) 
(Kangyur) 
 

T445 rnal 'byor chen po'i rgyud dpal rdo  rje phreng ba mngon par brjod pa rgyud thams cad kyi 
snying po gsang la rnam par phye ba (śrī-vajramālā-abhidhāna-mahā-yogatantra-sarva- tantra-h􏰂daya-hasya-vibha􏰆ga-nāma). sde dge bka’ 'gyur, rgyud 'bum ca, 207b7-277b3. t tt tan an an an
 
'gyur 
'gyur 'gyur 'gyur (Tengyur)
(Tengyur) 
(Tengyur) 
(Tengyur) 
 
Buddhaśrījñāna, T1855 kun tu bzang po zhes bya ba'i sgrub pa'i thabs (Samantabhadra-nāma- sādhana). sde dge bstan 'gyur, rgyud 'grel di, 28b6-36a5. Candrakīrti, T1785 sgron ma gsal bar byed pa zhes bya ba'i rgya cher bshad pa (Pradīpoddyotana- nāma-􏰄īkā). sde dge bstan 'gyur, rgyud 'grel ha, 1a1-201b2. Maitreya & Asa􏰆ga, T4020 theg pa chen po mdo sde'i rgyan zhes bya ba'i tshig le'ur byas pa (Mahāyānasūtrāla􏰇kāra-nāma-kārikā). sde dge bstan 'gyur, Sems Tsam phi, 1a1-39a4. Nāgārjuna, P2661 grub pa'i thabs mdor byas pa (Pi􏰀􏰁īk􏰂ta-sādhana). Peking bstan 'gyur, vol.61 rgyud 'grel gi, 1b1-12a6. Nāgārjuna, P4788 bsdus pa'i rim pa'i bsgrub thabs (Pi􏰀􏰁īkrama-sādhana). Peking bstan 'gyur, vol.85 rgyud 'grel zhu, 1a1-12a6. Nāgārjuna, T1784 dpal gsang ba 'dus pa'i rgyud kyi rgyud 'grel (Śrīguhyasamāja-tantrasya- tantra􏰄īkā). sde dge bstan 'gyur, rgyud 'grel sa, 1a1-324a7. Nāgārjuna, T1796 sgrub pa'i thabs mdor byas pa (Pi􏰀􏰁īk􏰂ta-sādhana). sde dge bstan 'gyur, rgyud 'grel ngi, 1a1-11a2. Nāgārjuna, T1802 rim pa lnga pa (Pañcakrama). sde dge bstan 'gyur, rgyud 'grel ngi, 45a5-57a1.
 
120 Ratnākaraśānti, T1826 mdor bsdus pa'i sgrub thabs kyi 'grel pa rin chen phreng ba (Pi􏰀􏰁īk􏰂ta- sādhana-v􏰂tti-ratnāvalī). sde dge bstan 'gyur, rgyud 'grel ci, 1a-95a. Vibhuticandra, T1832 sgrub thabs mdor byas kyi dka' 'grel (Pi􏰀􏰁īk􏰂ta-sādhana-pañjikā). sde dge bstan 'gyur, rgyud 'grel ci, 203a-207b. gsung 'bum gsung 'bum gsung 'bum gsung 'bum (Sung
(Sung 
(Sung 
(Sung- 
– -bum) bum) bum) bum)
 
Tsong kha pa, T5303 dpal gsang ba 'dus pa'i sgrub thabs rnal 'byor dag pa'i rim pa. gsung 'bum (zhol) - Collected works of Je Tsongkapa, Lama Guru Deva, New Delhi, 1978-1979, ja.3, 1a1-29a1. Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese
 
Taisho 939 佛說大乘觀想曼拏羅淨諸惡趣經卷上 (Sarvadurgatipariśodhana-tantra). Taisho shinsu daizokyo, Vol. 19 pp. 88-95. Modern works Modern works Modern works Modern works
 
Akhu Sherab Gyatso. Sacred Words of Lord Akshobhya. Translated by Geshe Thubten Jinpa. New York: Gere Foundation, 1999. Bagchi, Jhunu. The History and Culture of the Pālas of Bengal and Bihar, cir. 750 A.D.-cir. 1200 A.D. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1993. Bentor, Yael. “The Convergence of Theoretical and Practical Concerns in a Single Verse of the Guhyasamāja Tantra.” In Tibetan ritual. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2010. Brauen, Martin. The Mandala: Sacred circle in Tibetan Buddhism. Translated by Martin Willson. Boston, Mass: Shambhala, 1997. Brown, Percy. Indian Architecture - Buddhist and Hindu Periods. 3rd ed. Bombay: D. B. Taraporevala, 1971. Bu-ston Rin-chen-grub. The History of Buddhism in India and Tibet. Translated by Eugene Obermiller. Heidelberg, Leipzig: O. Harrassowitz, 1932.
 
121 Chimpa, Lama, and Alaka Chattopadhyaya. Taranatha's History of Buddhism in India. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1990. Coleman, Graham. Tibet: A Buddhist Trilogy. PAL DVD Region 0. Thread Cross Films & Orient Foundation, 2005. Doboom Tulku. The Buddhist Path to Enlightenment : Tibetan Buddhist Philosophy and Practice. Varanasi: Pilgrims Publishing, 2004. Edgerton, Franklin. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953. Fremantle, Francesca. “A Critical Study of the Guhyasamāja Tantra.” PhD Thesis, University of London, 1971. Ganden Jangtse. Long Guhyasamāja Sādhana according to the oral tradition of Ganden Jangtse Monastic College (rgyud kyi rgyal po dpal gsang ba 'dus pa'i bdag mdun bum sogs kyi tsho ga dga' ldan byang rtse grwa tshang gi gsung rgyun ltar nag 'gros su bkod pa bzhug so). personal copy in possession of author: Ganden Jangtse Monastic College. Hopkins, Jeffrey, Tsong-kha-pa, and H.H. Dalai Lama. Yoga Tantra: paths to magical feats. Ithaca, N.Y.: Snow Lion Publications, 2005. Lancaster, Lewis R., and Sung-bae Park. The Korean Buddhist canon : a descriptive catalogue. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979. Lessing, F. D., and Alex Wayman. Introduction to the Buddhist Tantric Systems. (tr. from rGgyud sDe sPyi'i rNam-par gZhag rGyas-par brJod by mKhas Grub rJje). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1978. Linrothe, Robert. Ruthless Compassion: Wrathful Deities in early Indo-Tibetan Esoteric Buddhist Art. London: Serindia Publications, 1999. Matsunaga, Yukei. “Some problems of the Guhyasamāja-tantra.” Edited by Lokesh Chandra and Perala Ratnam. Studies in Indo-Asian art and culture (5) (1977): 109-119.
 
122 Mayer, Robert. “Pelliot tibétain 349: A Dunhuang Tibetan Text on rDo rje Phur pa.” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 27 27 27 27 (1) (2004): 129-164. Meisezahl, R. O. “Ak􏰃obhya-Mañjuvajra. Ikonographie und Ikonologie des Ekonavi􏰇śadātmakamañjuvajrama􏰀􏰁ala.” Oriens 25 25 25 25 (1976): 190-274. Mimaki, Katsumi, and Toru Tomabechi. Pañcakrama: Sanskrit and Tibetan Texts Critically Edited with Verse Index and Facsimile Edition of the Sanskrit Manuscripts. Bibliotheca codicum Asiaticorum, 8. Tokyo: Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for UNESCO, 1994. Mori, Masahide. Vajrāvalī of Abhayākaragupta. 2 vols. Buddhica Britannica Series Continua XI. Tring, UK: The Institute of Buddhist studies, 2009. Nagar, Shanti Lal. Indian Monoliths. New Delhi: Intellectual Pub. House, 1992. Nalanda Translation Committee, and Chögyam Trungpa. The Rain of Wisdom. London: Taylor & Francis, 1980. Roerich, George. The Blue Annals. Calcutta: Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1949. Ruegg, David Seyfort. The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India. A history of Indian literature, v. 7, fasc. 1. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1981. Skorupski, Tadeusz. “Three Types of Evocation.” In The Buddhist Forum, IV: Tring: The Institute of Buddhist Studies, 2001. Skorupski, Tadeusz. The Sarvadurgatipariśodhana Tantra: Elimination of All Evil Destinies. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1983. Snellgrove, D. L., and H. E. Richardson. A Cultural History of Tibet. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1968. Snellgrove, D. L. The Hevajra Tantra: a critical study, 2 vols. Vol. 1. 2 vols. London Oriental Series 6. London: Oxford University Press, 1959.
 
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