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An introduction to Buddhist dictionary glossary of Sanskrit Tibetan Chinese Buddhism terms


Primary Compilation Source: ronald_epstein, Ph.D, compiler, buddhism_a_to_z, Burlingame, California: buddhist_text_translation_society, 2003. ISBN: 0881393533 Paperback: 284 pages. http://www.BTTSOnline.org http://www.Amazon.com http://www.bttsonline.org/product.aspx?pid=118 http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0881393533/ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20

What do sangha, karma and bodhisattva really mean? Who were the major disciples_of_the_buddha? Find out in this lively and easy-to-read, alphabetical listing of major buddhist terms and figures. Written by a practicing Buddhist scholar for the beginner, many entries read like short stories. Cross references. Author: ronald_epstein received his PhD from uc_berkeley in buddhism. He collaborated in the translation of the heart_sutra and the shurangama_sutra under the direction of tripitaka_master hsuan_hua. He has been teaching philosophy and religion at San Francisco State University for 30 years and is also a research professor at the institute_for_world_religions in berkeley.

This book is meant to provide basic information about buddhism for students and others who have personal interest. It was especially designed as an aid for readers of the publications of the buddhist_text_translation_society (btts), and the larger portion of the material presented consists of selections from btts publications. It is not meant as a scholarly tool, (although scholars are certainly welcome to read and use it).

The book is arranged in dictionary format and contains information on basic buddhist concepts and buddhist_lists. It can be used as a reference when reading buddhist_texts, and it can also function as an introduction_to_buddhism. (See the list_of_introductory_buddhist_readings below.)

buddhism_a_to_z is by no means all-inclusive. For instance, very little historical information is provided. The most basic important terms and lists are found in it, but from time to time the reader will fail to find what he or she is looking for. In those cases, the “Some Standard Reference Works Including Buddhist Subjects” contains information about standard reference works that will almost certainly be of use. References to non-buddhist_text_translation_society publications were initially also planned for inclusion; however, it was decided that since that information can be readily located in the standard reference works, it would be omitted here.

The scope of the information found in the entries is not exhaustive. Many of the entries have an open-ended quality to them. The intent is to spur the interest of the reader to investigate further.

The following conventions have been adopted: All quotations from canonical works have been indented ten spaces. Quotations not indented and indicated by quotation marks are from modern works. In quotations from canonical works, if the speaker is not indicated, it is the buddha shakyamuni. In modern works, if the speaker is not indicated, it is the venerable master hsuan-hua, ninth patriarch of the wei-yang chan lineage and founder and chairperson of the dharma_realm_buddhist_association (drba).

buddhism_a_to_z is by no means a finished work. Because of pressures to make it available, it has been decided to publish it in this preliminary form. The reader is cordially invited to participate in the development of the work for future editions by offering suggestions for its improvement and by providing information about errors and inaccuracies. Although many members of the btts have kindly contributed their suggestions and made corrections, the errors that remain are solely my responsibility.

ronald_epstein, Ph.D, Former Professor of Buddhism at san_francisco_state_university

dharma_realm_buddhist_university city_of_ten_thousand_buddhas talmage, California 95481-0217

(NOTE: Numerous corrections and enhancements have been made under shastra tradition and “fair_use” by an anonymous buddhist_monk redactor of this Online buddhist_encyclopedia compilation)


When using this book as a reference, look first under the term or list in question. If you do not find a list, then try under the key term in the list. If you do not find a term, try either another translation, the sanskrit, or a related term. Be sure to consult the table of contents.

When using this book as an introduction to buddhist_teachings, see the section below entitled list_of_introductory_buddhist_readings

The Structure of the Entries

Most entries are structured following a pattern of going from easier to understand material to more difficult to understand material. Often the explanations progress according to level of teaching, culminating with the mahayana teaching, but sometimes the progression is from less technical to more technical without regard to level of teaching.

Each entry will include some or all of the following elements:





ENTRY REFERENCES (at the bottom of each entry, separated by a short line). The references include the following sections:

1) chinese mandarin: : lists the romanization in Jungwen (i.e., Chinese Mandarin or Zhong-Wen pronunciation).

2) sanskrit: : lists one or more Sanskrit equivalents.

3) pali: : lists one or more Pali equivalents.

4) Alternate Translations: lists other translations that have been used or proposed for the same term or list. Some of the alternate translations listed may not be accurate. They are given partly so that readers can be aware of equivalents found in other translations.

SEE ALSO: Indicates other entries that may give additional information on the topic or be of related interest.

buddhist_text_translation_society (http://www.BTTSonline.org) References: References to the topic which can be found in Buddhist Text Translation Society publications.

Information to be Found

Following the Entries

The reader should consult the table of contents for the location of useful charts and tables that follow the entry section.

LIST OF INTRODUCTORY READINGS list_of_introductory_buddhist_readings

For a general understanding of basic buddhist_teachings, start with the entries in Group I, then move on to Group II, and so forth. If you want information on a particular topic, read the specific entry that most closely approximates your topic, then check the entries listed under “SEE ALSO” at the end of the entry, then check the sources listed under “BTTS REFERENCES” and “OTHER REFERENCES”.

I. karma






II. arhat



twelvefold_conditioned_arising Also listed under dependent_origination










five_moral_precepts Also listed as five_precepts











five_types_of_buddhist_study_and_practice See also five_buddhist_schools



buddha_recitation See also nama_japa



emptiness See also prajna_paramita and prajna





1. Many passages from btts publications have been slightly edited and/or retranslated without each specific instance being indicated.

2. In quoted passages some attempt, though not an exhaustive one, has been made to standardize terminology.

3. Conventions:

a) sanskrit and pali diacritical_marks are missing in the text of the entries but hopefully can be added in later editions. Diacritical marks are included in the Sanskrit and Pali sections of entry references.

b) Two slightly different conventions of romanization have been used for sanskrit words depending upon whether or not they are treated as english. For those treated as English no diacritical marks will be used, and so the spelling is that English spelling closest to the pronunciation.

c) The following sanskrit buddhist_terms have been treated as English words: arhat, bhikshu, bhikshuni, bodhisattva, buddha, hinayana, karma, mahayana, nirvana, pratyekabuddha, samadhi, stupa, sutra, theravada.

The following words have been italicized to indicate that they have not yet become part of the English language: asura, bodhi, dhyana, gatha, kalpa, paramita, prajna, sharira, skandha, shramana, shravaka, upasaka, upasika, vajra, yang, yin. Of course other less well-known non-English terms are also underlined.

d) For the names of countries each country's own pronunciation and spelling of its name has been used; therefore: Nippon, not japan; Deutschland, not Germany; and Junggwo (Zhong-Guo), not china.

e) The yale_system of romanization has been adopted for Jungwen (i.e., Chinese mandarin, Zhong-Wen), because as read by non-linguists it most closely approximates the actual pronunciation. However, in many quoted passages the reader will find other systems of Romanization. Conversion tables to the more widely used wade_giles and pinyin romanization are found at the end of the book. NOTE: We are in the process of converting the Romanization to Pinyin.

Related Websites: http://www.Shakyamuni-Buddha.com, http://www.Amitabha-Buddha.com, http://www.Amitabha-Sutra.com, http://www.Bhaisajya-Guru.com, http://www.Medicine-Buddha.org, http://www.Avatamsaka-Sutra.com, http://www.Flower-Adornment.com, http://www.Shurangama-Mantra.com, http://www.Shurangama-Sutra.com, http://www.Prajna-Paramita.com, http://www.Diamond-Sutra.net, http://www.Vajra-Sutra.com, http://www.Sixth-Patriarch.com, http://www.Dharani-Sutra.com, http://www.Sanghata-Sutra.com, http://www.Manjushri-Bodhisattva.com, http://www.Avalokiteshvara-Bodhisattva.com, http://www.Samantabhadra-Bodhisattva.com, http://www.Ksitigarbha-Bodhisattva.com, http://www.Ksitigarbha.com, http://www.Nagarjuna-Bodhisattva.com, http://www.Nalanda-University.com, http://www.Buddhist-Sutras.com, http://www.Buddhist-Sutra.com,


Primary Original Source: The tripitaka sutra, shastra and vinaya teachings (as found in the scripture storehouse of the indian sanskrit- siddham, chinese, tibetan and japanese traditions of the nalanda_tradition of ancient nalanda_university) of shakyamuni buddha, and his arya sagely bodhisattva bhikshu monk and upasaka disciples.

These good_and_wise_advisors (kaliyanamitra) dharma_master teachers include arya venerables nagarjuna, ashvaghosha, aryasura, kumarajiva, shantideva, chandrakirti, chandragomin, vasubandhu, asanga, hui_neng, atisha, kamalashila, dharmarakshita, tsong_khapa, thogme_zangpo, patanjali, sushruta, charaka, vagbhata, nichiren, hsu_yun, hsuan_hua, shen_kai, tenzin_gyatso, kyabje_zopa, ajahn_chah, vasant_lad, and other modern day masters. We consider them to be in accord with Master hsuan_hua’s seven_guidelines_for_recognizing_genuine_teachers

nalanda_online_university's (http://www.Nalanda-University.com]]) teachings are based especially on the dharma_flower_sutra (also called lotus_sutra, the avatamsaka_sutra, the shurangama_sutra, the ksitigarbha_sutra, the bhaisajya_guru_sutra, the dharani_sutra, the vajra_sutra, the prajna_paramita_sutra, the guhyasamaja, the kalachakra and their commentaries (shastras) by the above arya tripitakacharya dharma_masters.

At Nalanda Online University we practice daily and introduce you to (via downloadable multimedia mp3_audio and hdtv hi-def_video lectures) the teachings and practices of the five_traditions transmitted by the buddha shakyamuni:

1. teaching_school (mahayana sutrayana - paramitayana - hua_yan and tian_tai, yogachara, nalanda_tradition prasangika_madhyamika, theravada sutta)

  See also: [[Tripitaka]] (1. [[Sutras]], 2. [[Vinaya]], 3. [[Shastras]] or [[Abhidharma]], or [[Tantra]]), [[Taisho]] Catalog Numbering System, [[Dharma]], and names of individual sutras (such as [[Shurangama Sutra]], [[Avatamsaka Sutra]] [[Flower Adornment Sutra]], [[Lotus Sutra]] [[Wonderful Dharma Flower Sutra]], [[Earth Store Sutra]], [[Dharani Sutra]], [[Brahma Net Sutra]], [[Medicine Master Buddha Sutra]], [[Sixth Patriarch Platform Sutra]], [[Sutra in 42 Sections]], [[Sutra on the Buddha's Bequeathed Teaching]], et al.

2. moral_regulations_school (vinaya pratimoksha shila - bodhisattva pranidhana - vajrayana - samaya (or pledges) - yogic_yama)

3. esoteric_school (vajrayana - mantrayana (path of mantra) - tantrayana (or tantra, highest_yoga_tantra or yoga_tantra - dharani - secret_school of the mahayana)

4. meditation_school (indian dhyana_samadhi - shamatha - vipassana, chinese chan, japanese zen,

      [[Tibetan]] [[Mahamudra]] of [[Kagyu]], and [[Tibetan]] [[Dzogchen]] of [[Nyingma]])

5. pure_land_school (devotional, bhakti puja - niyama- buddha - bodhisattva mindfulness and nama_japa

       [[Name Recitation ]]of [[Buddhas]] [[Amitabha]] - [[Amitayus]], [[Vajradharma]], [[Vajrayogini]], [[Vajravarahi]], [[Medicine Buddha]] - [[Bhaisajya Guru]] - [[Akshobhya]] - [[Vajradhara]], [[Heruka]], [[Chakrasamvara]], [[Shakyamuni]], [[Vairochana]], [[Nishyanda]], [[Vajrasattva]],
       and [[Bodhisattva]]s: [[Avalokiteshvara]] - [[Guanyin]] - [[Chenrezig]] -[[Mahakala]] - [[Ushnisha Shitata Patra]] (also [[She Dan Doe Bo Da La]] or [[White Umbrella]] or [[White Canopy]]) - [[Hayagriva]], [[Tara]], [[Samantabhadra]] [[Universal Worthy]],
       [[Manjushri]] - [[Yamantaka]] - [[Kalarupa]] Great [[Wisdom]], [[Maitreya]] Great [[Loving Kindness]] (also [[maitri]], [[Mahasthamaprapta]] Great [[Strength]], 
       [[Ksitigarbha]] (also [[Kshitigarbha]] or [[Di Zang]]- [[Earth Store]] Great [[Vows]], [[Vajrapani]], 
       [[Chandraprabha]] [[Moonlight Radiance]], [[Suryaprabha]] [[Sunlight Radiance]], [[Medicine King]] Bodhisattva, [[Bhaisajyaraja]], [[Medicine Superior]] Bodhisattva, [[Bhaisajyasamudgata]],
       and others [[Dharma Protecting]] [[Dharmapala]] [[Lokapala]] [[Sanghapala]] [[Bodhisattvas]], [[Gods]] ([[Deva]]) and [[Goddesses]] ([[Devi]]) such as [[Vaishravana]].

Compilation Sources for the Above Material on the Teachings of the Buddha:

Primary Compilation Source: Epstein, Ronald B., Ph.D, compiler, Buddhist Text Translation Society's Buddhism A to Z, Burlingame, California: Buddhist Text Translation Society, 2003. ISBN: 0881393533 Paperback: 284 pages. www.BTTSOnline.org www.Amazon.com http://www.bttsonline.org/product.aspx?pid=118 http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0881393533/ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20

Secondary Compilation Source: The Seeker’s Glossary of Buddhism, 2nd ed., San Francisco, California: Sutra Translation Committee of the United States and Canada, 1998: www.budaedu.org.tw

Secondary Compilation Source: Muller, Charles, editor, Digital Dictionary of Buddhism [DDB], Toyo Gakuen University, Japan, 2007: Username is “guest”, with no password. http://buddhism-dict.net/ddb - Based in large part on the Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms with Sanskrit and English Equivalents (by Soothill and Hodous) Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass, 1997.

Secondary Compilation Source: Ehrhard, Diener, Fischer, et al, The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen, Boston, Massachusetts: Shambhala Publications, 1991. 296 pages. ISBN 978-0-87773-520-5 www.Shambhala.com, http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877735204/ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20, http://www.shambhala.com/html/catalog/items/isbn/978-0-87773-520-5.cfm

The Dharma is a Priceless Jewel, thus these research compilations and audio and video teaching materials are offered free-of-charge by this anonymous Buddhist Monk for the Bodhi Resolve benefit of All Sentient Beings in the Universe…

…under a Creative Commons License.

The rights to textual segments (“quoted, paraphrased, or excerpted”) of the are owned by the author-publisher indicated in the brackets next to each segment and are make available and commented on (under the “shastra tradition”) under fair_use. For rights regarding the Buddhist “Encyclopaedia - Glossary - Dictionary” compilation as a whole, please know that it is offered under this Creative Commons License.

This Nalanda University site (http://www.Nalanda-University.com) is redacted by an anonymous Buddhist monk for the benefit of all living beings so they may diligently (virya paramita) cultivate freely to realize Bodhi enlightenment for the sake of all.

On the Buddha Shakyamuni's Birthday 2007, this free redaction is offered (received, upheld, read, recited, studied, pondered, explained, and written out), in accordance with the Lotus saddharma_pundarika_sutra Chapter 19: “Merit and Virtue of a Dharma Master” as a selfless offering to the Buddhas and Bodhisattva Sangha above to adorn the Pure Lands and to liberate living beings suffering in samsara below by compassionately helping them to plant good roots in this and their future rebirths.

The merit is dedicated to anuttarasamyaksambodhi.

Increasing Effect Mantra: Om Sambhara Sambhara (These Bhikshu Bodhisattva Bodhichitta Vows) Bimana Sara (Spread) Maha (Greatly) Java (Rapidly) Hum (recited 7x)

To increase by 100,000 times the merit created: Tadyatha Om Pancha Griya (five offerings or five faces) Ava Bodhani Svaha (7x)

Om Dhuru Dhuru Jaya (Victory) Mukhe (Face or Mouth) Svaha (7x)

I Now Universally Transfer the Merit and Virtue of to All Beings to realize Anuttara-Samyak-Sam-Bodhi (“Unsurpassed Proper and Equal Right Enlightenment”)

Sarva Mangalam. May all be Auspicious.

Arya Bhikshu Shantideva’s Bodhisattvacharyavatara says: Just as Manjushri works To fulfill the aims of all limited beings To the far reaches of space in the ten directions, May my behavior become just like that.

For as long as space remains, And for as long as wandering beings remain, May I too remain for that long, Dispelling the sufferings of wandering beings.

(Like Ananda says in the Shurangama Sutra introduction to the Shurangama Mantra, “And even could the nature of shunyata melt away, my vajra-like Supreme Resolve would still remain unmoved.)

Whatever sufferings wandering beings might have, May all of them ripen on me, And through the Bodhisattva assembly, May wandering beings enjoy happiness.

May the teachings, the sole medicine for the sufferings of wandering beings And the source of all happiness, Continue to endure for a very long time, With material support and shows of respect.


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vajrayogini_ayurveda_center: http://distance-learning.ayurveda-acupuncture.com

medicine_buddha_mantra: Om Namo Bhagavate Bhaisajya Guru Vaidurya Prabhaha Rajaya Tathagataya Arhate Samyamsambodhi Tadyata Om Bhaisajya Bhaisajye Bhaisajya Samudgate Svaha!

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