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Part of the List of dharma_terms from the buddhist_ayurveda Course (skt220 ) on sanskrit_terms of ayurveda and dharma


= Cosmology =

cosmology

The buddha proclaimed that on the highest level of understanding the entire cosmos is pure mind. On the ordinary level of understanding he painted a picture of a cosmos filled with countless world_systems (see entry) with countless planets filled with living_beings of every sort. Our particular world_system is neither unique nor central in any way. other world_systems also have their buddhas, who also teach the path to enlightenment.

The flower_adornment_sutra describes the universe as consisting of an infinitely large lotus-flower in which our world occupies the thirteenth tier. The lotus is suspended on various oceans of primal mind-energy forces called great_elements.

Our world_system: the saha_world

Our particular world_system, as is the case with all world_systems, can be described in both 'horizontal' and 'vertical' directions. The 'horizontal' refers to its layout in space, while the 'vertical' dimension refers to the levels of consciousness of the various types of beings who inhabit it.

The center of our world is mount_sumeru, which is surrounded by four great 'continents'. earth is located in the southern continent, named jambudvipa]]. The continents are surrounded by seas and rings of iron mountains.


diagram of the saha_world ('horizontal')


Within the saha_world are six_paths_of_rebirth (see entry), that is, six different types of living_beings, each with its own distinctive kind of karma. The beings are generally categorized according to which of the three worlds (see entry) they abide in. The three_worlds are the world of desire (desire_realm), the world of form (form_realm), and the formless world (formless_realm). The characteristic]]s of some of these beings are described in the entries for gods, ghosts, asura, sixesire Heaven]]s, four_dhyanas, four_formless_realms.

see_also: three_worlds, six_paths_of_rebirth, world_system, gods, ghosts, asura, six_desire_heavens, four_dhyanas, four_formless_realms, creation, time.

btts_references: fas Ch5; spv 53-60, 139-143.


diagram of the saha_world ('vertical')


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Fair Use Bibliographic Sources

fair_use: Primary fair_use Compilation Source: ron_epstein, Ph.D, compiler, buddhism_a_to_z, Burlingame, california, buddhist_text_translation_society, 2003, p. isbn_0881393533 Paperback: 284 pages. http://www.BTTSOnline.org www.Amazon.com http://www.bttsonline.org/product.aspx?pid=118 http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0881393533/ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20 and many other sources (see bibliography).

Primary Original Source: The tripitaka of sutra, shastra and vinaya dharma teachings (as found in the scripture storehouse of the indian sanskrit- siddham, chinese, tibetan and japanese traditions of the nalanda_tradition of ancient nalanda_university) of shakyamuni_buddha, and his arya sagely bodhisattva bhikshu monk and upasaka disciples.

These good_and_wise_advisors (kaliyanamitra) dharma_master teachers include arya venerables om_tare_tuttare_ture om_ah_hum and namo to jivaka, charaka, lao_zi - mahakashapa, ashwagosha, shantideva - hui_neng - shen_kai sheng_ren_shr, bodhidharma, the 16 nalanda_acharyas 1. nagarjuna-manjushri, 2. arydeva, 3. buddhapalita, 4. bhavaviveka, 5. chandrakirti and chandragomin, 6. shantideva, 7. shantarakshita, 8. kamalashila, 9. asanga-maitreya, 10. vasubhandu, 11. dignaga, 12. dharmakirti, 13. vimuktisena, 14. haribhadra, 15. gunaprabha, 16. shakyaprabha; dharmarakshita, atisha, tsong_khapa, thogme_zangpo, nyingma padmasambhava, yeshe_tsogyel, machig_lapdron, tilopa, naropa, milarepa, sakya_pandita, kumarajiva, xuan_zang, baozhi, hui_yuan, daosheng, changzhi, fazang, han_shan, shi_de, yunmen, nichiren, honen, shinran, kukai, dogen, hakuin, jamgon_kongtrul, nyingma penor_rinpoche, bakula_rinpoche, dagri_rinpoche, kirti_tsenshab_rinpoche, geshe_lama_kongchog, longchen_rapjampa - gosok_rinpoche, phabongkha_rinpoche, patrul_rinpoche, tenzin_gyatso the dalai_lama, sakya_trizin, hsu_yun, hsuan_hua, lama_zopa_rinpoche, choden_rinpoche, garchen_rinpoche, karmapa, mingyur_rinpoche, geshe_ngwang_dakpa, geshe_sopa_rinpoche, seung_sahn, thich_nhat_hanh, ajahn_chah, ajahn_sumedho, s._n._goenka, mama_ayur_punya_jyana_pushtim_kuriye_svaha, making offerings and b_bowing at your feet I make requests. Please bestow on me the two_attainments of maha punya and maha prajna_paramita. And om_ah_hum thanks to other modern_day_masters. We consider them to be in accord with tripitaka_master hsuan_hua’s “seven_guidelines_for_recognizing_genuine_teachers

nalanda_online_university's teachings are based especially on the following buddhist_scriptures: lama tsong_khapa's lam_rim, the Dharma Flower lotus_sutra, the avatamsaka_sutra, the shurangama_sutra, the ksitigarbha_sutra, the bhaisajya_guru_sutra, the dharani_sutra, the vajra_sutra, the prajna_paramita Hridayam heart_sutra, the vimalakirti_sutra, the sanghata_sutra, the sutra_of_golden_light, the srimala_devi_sutra, the sutra_in_42_sections, the mahaparinirvana_sutra, the hui_neng_sutra, vasubandhu's shastra_on_the_door_to_understanding_the_hundred_dharmas, Maitreya's ornament_for_clear_realizations (abhisamayalamkara), chandrakirti's supplement_to_nagarjuna_s_treatise_on_the_middle_way (madhyamakavatara), vasubandhu's treasury_of_manifest_knowledge (abhidharmakosha) and the tantras and mantras of the vajrayana the 42_hands_and_eyes, guhyasamaja, the kalachakra, the vajrayogini, the heruka, the chakrasamvara, the chod, the hayagriva, the hevajra, the yamantaka, the kalarupa, the manjushri_nama_samgiti, the vajrakilaya, the vajrapani, the vajra_claws_dakini, the mahakala, the tara, the white_umbrella_goddess (she_dan_do_bo_da_la), kirti_losang_trinle's grounds_and_paths_of_secret_mantra, and aku_sherab_gyatso's the_two_stages_of_the_guhyasamaja_tantra and their commentaries (shastras) by the above Arya tripitakacharya dharma_masters. Making offerings and bowing at your feet I make requests. Please bestow on me the two_attainments of maha punya and maha prajna_paramita.

Secondary fair_use Compilation Source: The seeker_s_glossary_of_buddhism, 2nd ed., San Francisco, California: Sutra Translation Committee of the United States and Canada, 1998: http://www.budaedu.org.tw

Secondary fair_use Compilation Source: Muller, Charles, editor, digital_dictionary_of_buddhism [DDB], Toyo Gakuen University, Japan, 2007: Username is “guest”, with no password. http://buddhism-dict.net/ddb - Based in large part on the dictionary_of_chinese_buddhist_terms with Sanskrit and English Equivalents (by soothill and Hodous) Delhi, India: motilal_banarsidass, 1997.

Secondary fair_use Compilation Source: Ehrhard, Diener, Fischer, et al, The shambhala_dictionary_of_buddhism_and_zen, Boston, Massachusetts: shambhala_publications, 1991. 296 pages. ISBN 978-0-87773-520-5 http://www.Shambhala.com, http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877735204/ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20, http://www.shambhala.com/html/catalog/items/isbn/978-0-87773-520-5.cfm Secondary fair_use Compilation Source: vaidya vasant_lad, textbook_of_ayurveda, ayurvedic_press, 2002; vasant_lad, bams, masc, ayurvedic_institute_gurukula_notes, ayurvedic_institute, 1994-2006;


NOTE: Numerous corrections and enhancements have been made under shastra_tradition and “fair_use” by an anonymous buddhist_monk redactor (Compiler) of this Online buddhist_encyclopedia Compilation)



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