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Part of the List of dharma_terms from the buddhist_ayurveda Course (skt220 ) on sanskrit_terms of ayurveda and dharma

= Bodhisattva =


bodhisattva (bodhi = enlightenment + sattva = being) is a sanskrit word which can be interpreted in two ways:

1) enlightener of sentient_beings. The bodhisattva takes the enlightenment that he has been certified as having attained, the wisdom that he has uncovered, and uses that enlightened wisdom to enlighten all other sentient beings.

2) An enlightened sentient being. The bodhisattva is also a sentient being, but he is one who has become enlightened.

Together these two meanings show that a bodhisattva is an enlightened sentient being who enlightens other beings.” (hd 13)

good man, you should know that what a bodhisattva does is most difficult. It is difficult for him to appear (in the world) and difficult for one to encounter him. To be able to see a bodhisattva is twice as difficult. A bodhisattva is one on whom all living_beings rely. He causes them to grow and brings them to realization. He is the savior of all living_beings, because he plucks them out of suffering and hardships. He is the refuge of all beings, because he protects and guards the world. He is the rescuer of all beings, because he delivers them from fear. (edr II 70)

A bodhisattva is someone who has resolved to become a buddha (see bodhi resolve) and who is cultivating the path to becoming a buddha. Usually the term bodhisattva is reserved for those who have reached some level of enlightenment. The term bodhisattva, mahasattva (great being), refers to bodhisattvas who have gone beyond the seventh_ground of the bodhisattva path (see ten_grounds).

“A bodhisattva . . . is also called 'a living being with a great mind attuned to the way.' No matter how badly people may act towards him, he doesn't hold it against them. He absolutely never becomes irritated, never loses his temper. . . .” (ss I 107)

bodhisattva is an extremely spiritual and holy name. . . . Some people claim they are bodhisattvas, although they are not. Some people who are bodhisattvas will not admit it. You see, it is very strange: those who are not bodhisattvas say they are, while those who are don't say so. ultimately, whether you say so or not, those who aren't, aren't, and those who are, are. There is no need to say so. bodhisattvas don't put ads in the newspapers saying, 'Do you recognize me? I am a bodhisattva.'” (hs 96)

“When the bodhisattva walks the bodhisattva path, he does what is very difficult. From an ordinary point_of_view, a bodhisattva practicing the bodhisattva path appears quite stupid. If he were not, then why would he choose to undergo suffering himself in order to come and teach and transform living_beings? But no matter what kind of suffering there is, he can endure it. He undergoes intense suffering even to the point of enduring the suffering due other living_beings. If the bodhisattva weren't stupid, then why would he take such a big personal loss? He doesn't benefit himself in anything he does. But that isn't because he is stupid. A bodhisattva has great wisdom. Because he has great wisdom, he wants to take across all living_beings and cause all of them to have wisdom too. He wants to forsake himself for the sake of the multitudes. He forsakes his own small self in order to bring living_beings' great selves to realization. When you walk the path of the bodhisattva you benefit yourself and you benefit others. In doing this you shouldn't fear any kind of suffering. The bodhisattva undergoes suffering just as if he were eating candy. He undergoes suffering as if there were no suffering to undergo. Furthermore, he wants to undergo suffering for the sake of all living_beings. That is the one kind of suffering that's worthwhile. Moreover, the bodhisattva thinks that:

To endure suffering is to end suffering. To enjoy blessings is to exhaust blessings.

Because he thinks in that way, he undergoes suffering on behalf of living beings. He transfers all of his bliss to all living_beings in the dharma realm (see transference/dedication). The merit from this kind of open and unselfish action is inexhaustible. It is completely public spirited, and it is for the benefit of all living_beings.” (fas Ch9 44)

“A bodhisattva is someone who likes to help other people. If you help others, then you are a bodhisattva. If I help others, then I am a bodhisattva. If you do not help others, then you are a rakshasa ghost. If I do not help others, then I am a rakshasa ghost. . . .

”'But I have no power to help others,' you say. 'first of all I have no money, and secondly I don't know how to talk to people. How can I help people?'

“. . . Have a compassionate mouth, not one which scolds people. Have a skilful tongue that finds ways to reason with people, not a tongue which continually gossips. Find a way to lessen the strife and discord in the world. Then, whether or not you have money, you can foster merit. If you have money, you can use that too, but what is more important is to have good thoughts, do good deeds, and be a good person. . . .” (ds 5-6)

The path of the bodhisattva consists of practicing the six (or ten) paramitas and traversing the many stages of partial enlightenment leading to the perfect_enlightenment of buddhahood.

*The venerable shariputra Tries to cultivate *the path of the bodhisattva

“The venerable shariputra, upon hearing the buddha say that cultivating the bodhisattva way was the door of the great_vehicle practice, decided that he too would cultivate the bodhisattva way. When you are cultivating the bodhisattva path, if someone wants your head, you have to give them your head. If they want your hands, you have to give them your hands. If they want your feet, you have to give your feet away. In general, if living beings want your body, you are supposed to give it to them: head, eyes, b_rains, marrow-that's inner Wealth]]. If someone needs those things of yours, and you're cultivating the bodhisattva path, you have to give them up.

shariputra personally told the buddha that he was going to cultivate the bodhisattva way, to cultivate great_vehicle dharma. The buddha said, 'You'd better try it out first. It is not all that easy. give it a preliminary three-month trial run. Then if you find you really can do it, you can set about cultivation of the bodhisattva way in earnest. In cultivating the bodhisattva way, you must have an attitude of there being no_self, no others, no_living_beings, and no lifespan. You have to be able to stomach the most bitter things, and yield the most pleasant ones to others. You must sacrifice yourself for the sake of others.'

shariputra said, 'I think I can do that. I imagine I could give my body away to someone if that person asked for it.'

“The buddha said, 'Okay, go try it out.'

“Thereupon shariputra set out to cultivate the bodhisattva way. As he was walking the bodhisattva path, he saw a stone in the road and said to himself, 'I should move this rock away or else people with poor eyesight walking along this road could break a leg or have a spill and be injured.' And so he moved the rock away and thought to himself, 'I'm cultivating the bodhisattva way.' He kept on going and ran into a hole full of water. He said, 'I'd better fill this hole. It would be easy to walk here if there weren't any water. Filling the hole would prevent situations such as that when shakyamuni buddha in a previous life had to spread out his hair to cover a mud puddle.' And so he found a pail and brought load after load of dirt until he had filled the hole so there was no more water. Then he said to himself, 'These are both ways of benefitting people. The road wasn't easy to travel on but I've repaired it, and that is cultivating the bodhisattva way.' He was very happy that he had cultivated the bodhisattva way twice that day. When he went back and sat in meditation that evening, he felt very comfortable and said, 'It's not strange that people cultivate the bodhisattva way. It's really fine. Today I have fewer false thoughts during my meditation. I'm certainly going to continue to cultivate the bodhisattva way.'

“The next day he set out for the mountains, where he found lots of dead trees. He said, “I'm going to clear those dead trees off to one side, which will also be cultivation of the bodhisattva way.' Then he met an eyeless person who was walking down the road without a guide. He thought, “I should cultivate the bodhisattva way and escort this blind person to his home.' And so he said, 'Mr Blindman, where do you want to go?'

“The eyeless person said, 'You are the blindman!'

shariputra thought, 'What? He's the blindman, and he gets upset when I call him “Mr Blindman”. Oh well, when one cultivates the bodhisattva way, one has to be patient.' And so he said, 'Oh, you are Mr Has eyes.'

“To that the blindman retorted, 'What's it to you if I have eyes or not?' He was exploding with anger as he scolded him.

shariputra said, 'I just want to help you. I'll guide you wherever you want to go.'

“The blind man said, 'I don't need any help from you,' and told him off.

shariputra said to himself, 'The bodhisattva way is not easy to cultivate! I wanted to show him the road and he cursed me. But be patient, practice the paramita of patience and don't pay any attention to him. However, I think I'll take the bodhisattva way back with me for the day and let it rest a little. Tomorrow we'll see.'

He returned, and as he sat in meditation that evening he kept having false thoughts about what had happened. 'He was blind and when I wanted to guide him along the road he cursed me! people in the world are really weird.' But he still didn't think of quitting, and hadn't decided it was too hard to cultivate the bodhisattva way. He still thought to himself, 'If he scolds me a bit it's not important. I can take it. I wouldn't have even cared if he had hit me.!'

“The next day he set out again to cultivate the bodhisattva way. On the bodhisattva way he encountered a person who was walking along and crying, sobbing his heart out. shariputra asked him, 'What's wrong? Whatever trouble you are in you can tell me about it. You don't have to be so sad and in so much pain.'

“The crying person said, 'You shouldn't even ask about my troubles! There's nothing you could do to help me.'

shariputra said, 'Maybe there's something I can do for you. give it a try and tell me.'

“The man said, `It wouldn't do any good to tell you. Don't waste my time. I've got too much pain in my heart, so all I can do is cry.'

shariputra said, 'I'm sure I can help you. Tell me what's wrong, and I'll find a way to help.'

“The man said,'Do you really mean it? It's because my mother is sick. She went to see the doctor, who wrote her a prescription that says she needs the eye of a living person to cure her. I've gone the rounds of all the pharmacies trying to buy a live person's eye, but there are none for sale. That kind of medicine doesn't exist, so there's no way to cure my mother's illness, and all I can do is cry. At first I intended to take out my own eye to cure her, but I can't give it up. It's too painful. And so now there's nothing I can do but cry!'

shariputra thought it over, 'I really should help him out of this painful dilemma. This is a bodhisattva way I should cultivate! Also, he is very filial. I've found a friend in my cultivation of the bodhisattva way. This is excellent! I should practice this bodhisattva way!' He thought it over for not very long-maybe two minutes-and made up his mind, 'I'm going to do it!' Then he said, 'Don't cry. I'll give you my eye to help you out.'

“The man said, 'really? Of course that would be wonderful! Can you really give up your eye to cure my mother's illness?'

shariputra said, 'It's no big deal. I can give it up. I'm someone who wants to cultivate the bodhisattva way.'

“The person said, 'Fine. I'm going to bow to you first, bow to this bodhisattva who wants to cultivate the bodhisattva way.'

“After the person bowed to him, shariputra couldn't get out of giving up his eye, and so he took a knife and gouged out his left eye. He was able to stand the pain and said, 'Okay, you can take this to cure your mother's illness.'

“The person took it, looked at it and said, 'Ugh, your eye stinks! And anyway its a left eye, and I need a right eye. It's totally useless!' He slammed the eye to the ground and stamped it into the dirt with his foot, smashing it to bits.

“At that, shariputra's heart was filled with pain. Before he had been able to bear the hurt from his eye, but now there was hurt from his eye and from his heart too, and he said, 'It's no wonder the buddha said to give cultivating the bodhisattva way a trial run. It' really hard to cultivate the bodhisattva way! It's really hard!!!' He was in pain and regretted it; he didn't want to cultivate the bodhisattva way anymore.

“The crying person started to laugh and said, 'Oh, so that's how your bodhisattva way was all along. It was just a start without a finish. You could only manage to get started, but you couldn't keep it up. What kind of bodhisattva way were you cultivating anyway?' After saying that, he rose into empty space; it turned out that he was a god who had come to test him. Furthermore, shariputra hadn't lost his eye after all, but his bodhisattva way was finished.” (fas-pI]] 51-54)

*The bodhisattva in theravada_buddhism

That theravada buddhists do not recognize the bodhisattva is a widespread misconception. In theravada both the buddha shakyamuni and the buddhas of the past are referred to as bodhisattvas. The reality of the bodhisattva path, which is the path to becoming a buddha, is acknowledged, but it is considered by theravadins to be too difficult for all but a rare few to follow.

1) chinese: pu_sa , pu_ti sa duo , 2) sanskrit: bodhisattva, 3) pali bodhisatta, 4) Alternate translations: bodhi-being, buddha-to-be, person destined for enlightenment.

see_also: mahayana_and_hinayana_compared, bodhi_resolve (bodhichitta), enlightenment.

btts_references: hs 95-97, dfs II 301-2; ds 5-6;TD 27-29; hd 13; edr II 70-72; uw 25-26; fas-pI]] 51-54 ; fas Ch9 44-45; fas Ch 11 39; ss I 107; ss VI]] 48-55; as 98-99.

Bodhisattva Twenty-five Bodhisattvas Descending from Heaven. Japanese painting, c. 1300. Translations of

Bodhisattva English: Enlightenment Being Pali: bodhisatta Sanskrit: bodhisattva Mon: တြုံလၟောဝ်ကျာ် ([kraoh kəmo caik]) Burmese: ဗောဓိသတ် (IPA: [bɔ́dḭθaʔ]) Chinese: 菩薩, 菩萨 (pinyin: púsà) Japanese: 菩薩 (rōmaji: bosatsu) Korean: 보살 (RR: bosal) Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ་ (byang chub sems dpa) Thai: โพธิสัตว์ phothisat Vietnamese: Bồ Tát Tamil: ஞானச்சீடர் (gnana seedar)

In Buddhism, a bodhisattva (Sanskrit: बोधिसत्त्व bodhisattva; Pali: बोधिसत्त bodhisatta) is either an enlightened (bodhi) existence (sattva) or an enlightenment-being or, given the variant Sanskrit spelling satva rather than sattva, “heroic-minded one (satva) for enlightenment (bodhi).” Another term is “wisdom-being.”[1] It is anyone who, motivated by great compassion, has generated bodhicitta, which is a spontaneous wish to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings.[2]

The bodhisattva is a popular subject in Buddhist art.


  1 In Theravāda Buddhism
  2 In Mahāyāna Buddhism
      2.1 Bodhisattva ideal
      2.2 Ten grounds
      2.3 School doctrines
  3 Gallery
  4 See also
  5 Notes
  6 References
  7 External links

In Theravāda Buddhism

The term “bodhisatta” (Pāli language) was used by the Buddha in the Pāli canon to refer to himself both in his previous lives and as a young man in his current life, prior to his enlightenment, in the period during which he was working towards his own liberation. When, during his discourses, he recounts his experiences as a young aspirant, he regularly uses the phrase “When I was an unenlightened bodhisatta…” The term therefore connotes a being who is “bound for enlightenment”, in other words, a person whose aim is to become fully enlightened. In the Pāli canon, the bodhisatta is also described as someone who is still subject to birth, illness, death, sorrow, defilement and delusion. Some of the previous lives of the Buddha as a bodhisattva are featured in the Jātaka tales.

In the Pāli canon, the bodhisatta Siddhartha Gotama is described thus:[3]

  before my Awakening, when I was an unawakened bodhisatta, being subject myself to birth, sought what was likewise subject to birth. Being subject myself to aging... illness... death... sorrow... defilement, I sought [happiness in] what was likewise subject to illness... death... sorrow... defilement.
  —Ariyapariyesana Sutta

While Maitreya (Pāli: Metteya) is mentioned in the Pāli canon, he is not referred to as a bodhisattva, but simply the next fully awakened Buddha to come into existence long after the current teachings of the Buddha are lost.

In later Theravāda literature, the term “bodhisatta” is used fairly frequently in the sense of someone on the path to liberation. The later tradition of commentary also recognizes the existence of two additional types of bodhisattas: the paccekabodhisatta who will attain Paccekabuddhahood, and the savakabodhisatta who will attain enlightenment as a disciple of a Buddha. According to the Theravāda teacher Bhikkhu Bodhi the bodhisattva path was not taught by Buddha [1].

Theravadin bhikku and scholar Walpola Rahula (Sri Rahula Maha Thera) has stated that the bodhisattva ideal has traditionally been held to be higher than the state of a śrāvaka not only in Mahāyāna, but also in Theravāda Buddhism. He also quotes an inscription from the 10th Century king of Sri Lanka, Mahinda IV (956-972 CE) who had the words inscribed “none but the bodhisattvas would become kings of Sri Lanka”, among other examples.[4]

  There is a wide-spread belief, particularly in the West, that the ideal of the Theravada, which they conveniently identify with Hinayana, is to become an Arahant while that of the Mahayana is to become a Bodhisattva and finally to attain the state of a Buddha. It must be categorically stated that this is incorrect. This idea was spread by some early Orientalists at a time when Buddhist studies were beginning in the West, and the others who followed them accepted it without taking the trouble to go into the problem by examining the texts and living traditions in Buddhist countries. But the fact is that both the Theravada and the Mahayana unanimously accept the Bodhisattva ideal as the highest.
  —Walpola Rahula, Bodhisattva Ideal in Buddhism

Clay sculpture of a bodhisattva. Afghanistan, 7th century Sculpture of a bodhisattva from Mathura, India Wood carving of Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva. China, 907-1125. [edit] In Mahāyāna Buddhism [edit] Bodhisattva ideal

Mahāyāna Buddhism is based principally upon the path of a bodhisattva. According to Jan Nattier, the term Mahāyāna (“Great Vehicle”) was originally even an honorary synonym for Bodhisattvayāna, or the “Bodhisattva Vehicle.”[5] The Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra contains an simple and brief definition for the term bodhisattva, which is also the earliest known Mahāyāna definition.[6][7] This definition is given as the following.[8]

  "Because he has enlightenment as his aim, a bodhisattva-mahāsattva is so called."

Mahāyāna Buddhism encourages everyone to become bodhisattvas and to take the bodhisattva vows. With these vows, one makes the promise to work for the complete enlightenment of all sentient beings by practicing the six perfections.[9] Indelibly entwined with the bodhisattva vow is merit transference (pariṇāmanā).

In Mahāyāna Buddhism life in this world is compared to people living in a house that is on fire. People take this world as reality pursuing worldly projects and pleasures without realising that the house is on fire and will soon burn down (due to the inevitability of death). A bodhisattva is one who has a determination to free sentient beings from samsara and its cycle of death, rebirth and suffering. This type of mind is known as the mind of awakening (bodhicitta). Bodhisattvas take bodhisattva vows in order to progress on the spiritual path towards buddhahood.

There are a variety of different conceptions of the nature of a bodhisattva in Mahāyāna. According to some Mahāyāna sources a bodhisattva is someone on the path to full Buddhahood. Others speak of bodhisattvas renouncing Buddhahood. According to the Kun-bzang bla-ma'i zhal-lung, a bodhisattva can choose any of three paths to help sentient beings in the process of achieving buddhahood. They are:

  king-like bodhisattva - one who aspires to become buddha as soon as possible and then help sentient beings in full fledge;
  boatman-like bodhisattva - one who aspires to achieve buddhahood along with other sentient beings and
  shepherd-like bodhisattva - one who aspires to delay buddhahood until all other sentient beings achieve buddhahood. Bodhisattvas like Avalokiteśvara and Śāntideva are believed to fall in this category.

According to the doctrine of some Tibetan schools (like Theravāda but for different reasons), only the first of these is recognized. It is held that Buddhas remain in the world, able to help others, so there is no point in delay. Geshe Kelsang Gyatso notes:[10]

  In reality, the second two types of bodhicitta are wishes that are impossible to fulfill because it is only possible to lead others to enlightenment once we have attained enlightenment ourself. Therefore, only king-like bodhicitta is actual bodhicitta. Je Tsongkhapa says that although the other Bodhisattvas wish for that which is impossible, their attitude is sublime and unmistaken.

The Nyingma school, however, holds that the lowest level is the way of the king, who primarily seeks his own benefit but who recognizes that his benefit depends crucially on that of his kingdom and his subjects. The middle level is the path of the boatman, who ferries his passengers across the river and simultaneously, of course, ferries himself as well. The highest level is that of the shepherd, who makes sure that all his sheep arrive safely ahead of him and places their welfare above his own.[11] [edit] Ten grounds

According to many traditions within Mahāyāna Buddhism, on the way to becoming a Buddha, a bodhisattva proceeds through ten, or sometimes fourteen, grounds or bhūmis. Below is the list of the ten bhūmis and their descriptions according to the Avataṃsaka Sūtra and The Jewel Ornament of Liberation, a treatise by Gampopa, an influential teacher of the Tibetan Kagyu school. (Other schools give slightly variant descriptions.)

Before a bodhisattva arrives at the first ground, he or she first must travel the first two of the five paths:

  the path of accumulation
  the path of preparation

The ten grounds of the bodhisattva then can be grouped into the next three paths

  bhūmi 1 the path of insight
  bhūmis 2-7 the path of meditation
  bhūmis 8-10 the path of no more learning

The chapter of ten grounds in the Avataṃsaka Sūtra refers to 52 stages. The 10 grounds are:

  Great Joy: It is said that being close to enlightenment and seeing the benefit for all sentient beings, one achieves great joy, hence the name. In this bhūmi the bodhisattvas practice all perfections (pāramitās), but especially emphasizing generosity (dāna).
  Stainless: In accomplishing the second bhūmi, the bodhisattva is free from the stains of immorality, therefore, this bhūmi is named "stainless". The emphasized perfection is moral discipline (śīla).
  Luminous: The third bhūmi is named "luminous", because, for a bodhisattva who accomplishes this bhūmi, the light of Dharma is said to radiate for others from the bodhisattva. The emphasized perfection is patience (kṣānti).
  Radiant: This bhūmi is called "radiant", because it is said to be like a radiating light that fully burns that which opposes enlightenment. The emphasized perfection is vigor (vīrya).
  Very difficult to train: Bodhisattvas who attain this bhūmi strive to help sentient beings attain maturity, and do not become emotionally involved when such beings respond negatively, both of which are difficult to do. The emphasized perfection is meditative concentration (dhyāna).
  Obviously Transcendent: By depending on the perfection of wisdom, [the bodhisattva] does not abide in either saṃsāra or nirvāṇa, so this state is "obviously transcendent". The emphasized perfection is wisdom (prajñā).
  Gone afar: Particular emphasis is on the perfection of skilful means (upāya), to help others.
  Immovable: The emphasized virtue is aspiration. This, the "immovable" bhūmi, is the bhūmi at which one becomes able to choose his place of rebirth.
  Good Discriminating Wisdom: The emphasized virtue is power.
  Cloud of Dharma: The emphasized virtue is the practice of primordial wisdom.

After the ten bhūmis, according to Mahāyāna Buddhism, one attains complete enlightenment and becomes a Buddha.

With the 52 stages, the Śūraṅgama Sūtra in East Asia recognizes 57 stages. With the 10 grounds, various Vajrayāna schools recognize 3–10 additional grounds,[12] mostly 6 more grounds with variant descriptions.[13][14]

A bodhisattva above the 7th ground is called a mahāsattva. Some bodhisattvas such as Samantabhadra are also said to have already attained buddhahood.[15] [edit] School doctrines

Some sutras said a beginner would take 3–22 countless eons (mahāsaṃkhyeya kalpas) to become a buddha.[16][17][18] Pure Land Buddhism suggests buddhists go to the pure lands to practice. Tiantai, Huayan, Zen and Vajrayāna schools say they teach ways to attain buddhahood within one karmic cycle.[19][20]

Various traditions within Buddhism believe in specific bodhisattvas. Some bodhisattvas appear across traditions, but due to language barriers may be seen as separate entities. For example, Tibetan Buddhists believe in various forms of Chenrezig, who is Avalokiteśvara in Sanskrit, Guanyin (Kwan-yin or Kuan-yin) in China and Korea, Quan Am in Vietnam, and Kannon (formerly spelled and pronounced: Kwannon) in Japan. Followers of Tibetan Buddhism consider the Dalai Lamas and the Karmapas to be an emanation of Chenrezig, the Bodhisattva of Compassion.

Kṣitigarbha is another popular bodhisattva in Japan and China. He is known for aiding those who are lost. His greatest compassionate vow is:

  If I do not go to the hell to help the suffering beings there, who else will go? ... if the hells are not empty I will not become a Buddha. Only when all living beings have been saved, will I attain Bodhi.

The place of a bodhisattva's earthly deeds, such as the achievement of enlightenment or the acts of dharma, is known as a bodhimanda, and may be a site of pilgrimage. Many temples and monasteries are famous as bodhimandas; for instance, the island of Putuoshan, located off the coast of Ningbo, is venerated by Chinese Buddhists as the bodhimanda of Avalokiteśvara. Perhaps the most famous bodhimanda of all is the bodhi tree under which Śākyamuṇi achieved buddhahood. [edit] Gallery

  Standing bodhisattva. Gandhāra, 2nd-3rd century.
  Standing bodhisattva. Gandhāra, 2nd-3rd century.
  Gathering of bodhisattvas. China, 6th century.
  Mural of bodhisattvas. China, Tang Dynasty.
  Ākāśagarbha Bodhisattva. Japan, 9th century.
  Mural of a bodhisattva. China, 10th century.
  Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva. India, 11th-12th century.
  Mahāsthāmaprāpta Bodhisattva. China, 13th century.
  Mañjuśrī Bodhisattva crossing the sea. Japan, 14th century.
  Kṣitigarbha Bodhisattva. Japan, 15th century.
  Samantabhadra Bodhisattva. Japan.
  Maitreya Bodhisattva. Tibet.

[edit] See also

  Bodhisattva vows
  List of bodhisattvas
  Karuna (compassion in Sanskrit)
  Bodhicharyavatara (A Guide to the Bodhisattva Way of Life)
  Vegetarianism in Buddhism
  Buddhist Ceremonies

[edit] Notes

  ^ Coomaraswamy, Ananda (1975). Buddha and the Gospel of Buddhism. Boston: University Books, Inc.. pp. 225. LCCN 64056434.
  ^ The Bodhisattva Vow: A Practical Guide to Helping Others, page 1, Tharpa Publications (2nd. ed., 1995) ISBN 978-0-948006-50-0
  ^ "Ariyapariyesana Sutta". Access to Insight. Retrieved 2009-03-23.
  ^ "Bodhisattva Ideal in Buddhism". Access to Insight. Retrieved 2010-04-18.
  ^ Nattier, Jan (2003), A few good men: the Bodhisattva path according to the Inquiry of Ugra: p. 174
  ^ Mall, Linnart. Studies in the Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita and Other Essays. Motilal Banarsidass. 2005. pp. 53-54.
  ^ Hirakawa, Akira. A history of Indian Buddhism: from Śākyamuni to Early Mahāyāna. Motilal Banarsidass. 2007. p. 297.
  ^ Conze, Edward. The Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand Lines and its Verse Summary. Grey Fox Press. 2001. p. 89.
  ^ The Bodhisattva Vow: A Practical Guide to Helping Others, pages 4-12, Tharpa Publications (2nd. ed., 1995) ISBN 978-0-948006-50-0
  ^ Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, Joyful Path of Good Fortune: the Complete Buddhist Path to Enlightenment, p. 422
  ^ Patrul Rinpoche, Words of My Perfect Teacher," page 218, "The king's way, called 'arousing bodhicitta with the great wish,' is the least courageous of the three. The boatman's way, called 'arousing bodhicitta with sacred wisdom,' is more courageous. It is said that Lord Maitreya aroused bodhicitta in this way. The shepherd's way, called 'the arousing of bodhicitta beyond compare,' is the most courageous of all. It is said to be the way Lord Mañjuśrĩ aroused bodhicitta."
  ^ 大圆满隆钦宁提派前行念诵文编一遍智妙道
  ^ 大圆满心性休息颂
  ^ 吉祥鄔金密嚴寺: 八地在般若乘和金剛乘的分別
  ^ 459 因地菩薩和果地菩薩
  ^ 三大阿僧祇劫
  ^ 成佛的目的是到每一個世界去度眾生.
  ^ 即身成就與三大阿僧祇劫之修行
  ^ 顯教與密教
  ^ 「無諍之辯」導讀


  Gampopa; The Jewel Ornament of Liberation; Snow Lion Publications; ISBN 1-55939-092-1
  White, Kenneth R.; The Role of Bodhicitta in Buddhist Enlightenment: Including a Translation into English of Bodhicitta-sastra, Benkemmitsu-nikyoron, and Sammaya-kaijo; The Edwin Mellen Press, 2005; ISBN 0-7734-5985-5
  Lampert, K.; Traditions of Compassion: From Religious Duty to Social Activism. Palgrave-Macmillan; ISBN 1-4039-8527-8
  Buddhanet.net tstang text
  Gyatso, Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, The Bodhisattva Vow: A Practical Guide to Helping Others, Tharpa Publications (2nd. ed., 1995) ISBN 978-0-948006-50-0
  Shantideva: Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life: How to Enjoy a Life of Great Meaning and Altruism, a translation of Shantideva's Bodhisattvacharyavatara with Neil Elliott, Tharpa Publications (2002) ISBN 978-0-948006-88-3
  The Making of a Savior Bodhisattva: Dizang in Medieval China, by Zhiru (Kuroda Institute Studies in East Asian Buddhism series no. 21), University of Hawaii Press, 2007; ISBN 9780824830458 at Google Books

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Bodhisattvas
  Who Are Bodhisattvas?, an excerpt from Lankavatara Sutra
  The Thirty-Seven Practices of Bodhisattvas, all-in-one page with memory aids & collection of different versions.
  What A Bodhisattva Does: Thirty-Seven Practices by Ngulchu Thogme with slide show format.
  Access to Insight Library: Bodhi's Wheel409

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Fair Use Bibliographic Sources

fair_use: Primary fair_use Compilation Source: ron_epstein, Ph.D, compiler, buddhism_a_to_z, Burlingame, california, buddhist_text_translation_society, 2003, p. isbn_0881393533 Paperback: 284 pages. http://www.BTTSOnline.org www.Amazon.com http://www.bttsonline.org/product.aspx?pid=118 http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0881393533/ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20 and many other sources (see bibliography).

Primary Original Source: The tripitaka of sutra, shastra and vinaya dharma teachings (as found in the scripture storehouse of the indian sanskrit- siddham, chinese, tibetan and japanese traditions of the nalanda_tradition of ancient nalanda_university) of shakyamuni_buddha, and his arya sagely bodhisattva bhikshu monk and upasaka disciples.

These good_and_wise_advisors (kaliyanamitra) dharma_master teachers include arya venerables om_tare_tuttare_ture om_ah_hum and namo to jivaka, charaka, lao_zi - mahakashapa, ashwagosha, shantideva - hui_neng - shen_kai sheng_ren_shr, bodhidharma, the 16 nalanda_acharyas 1. nagarjuna-manjushri, 2. arydeva, 3. buddhapalita, 4. bhavaviveka, 5. chandrakirti and chandragomin, 6. shantideva, 7. shantarakshita, 8. kamalashila, 9. asanga-maitreya, 10. vasubhandu, 11. dignaga, 12. dharmakirti, 13. vimuktisena, 14. haribhadra, 15. gunaprabha, 16. shakyaprabha; dharmarakshita, atisha, tsong_khapa, thogme_zangpo, nyingma padmasambhava, yeshe_tsogyel, machig_lapdron, tilopa, naropa, milarepa, sakya_pandita, fazang, yunmen, nichiren, honen, shinran, kukai, dogen, hakuin, jamgon_kongtrul, nyingma penor_rinpoche, bakula_rinpoche, dagri_rinpoche, kirti_tsenshab_rinpoche, geshe_lama_kongchog, longchen_rapjampa - gosok_rinpoche, phabongkha_rinpoche, patrul_rinpoche, mingyur_rinpoche, geshe_ngwang_dakpa, geshe_sopa_rinpoche, garchen_rinpoche, karmapa, sakya_trizin, tenzin_gyatso the dalai_lama, hsu_yun, hsuan_hua, lama_zopa_rinpoche, choden_rinpoche, ajahn_chah, seung_sahn, thich_nhat_hanh, ajahn_sumedho, s._n._goenka, mama_ayur_punya_jyana_pushtim_kuriye_svaha, bowing at your feet I make requests. Please bestow on me the two_attainments of maha punya and maha prajna_paramita. And thanks to other modern_day_masters. We consider them to be in accord with tripitaka_master hsuan_hua’s ”seven_guidelines_for_recognizing_genuine_teachers

nalanda_online_university's teachings are based especially on the following buddhist_scriptures: lama tsong_khapa's lam_rim, the Dharma Flower lotus_sutra, the avatamsaka_sutra, the shurangama_sutra, the ksitigarbha_sutra, the bhaisajya_guru_sutra, the dharani_sutra, the vajra_sutra, the prajna_paramita Hridayam heart_sutra, the vimalakirti_sutra, the sanghata_sutra, the sutra_of_golden_light, the srimala_devi_sutra, the sutra_in_42_sections, the mahaparinirvana_sutra, the hui_neng_sutra, vasubandhu's shastra_on_the_door_to_understanding_the_hundred_dharmas, Maitreya's ornament_for_clear_realizations (abhisamayalamkara), chandrakirti's supplement_to_nagarjuna_s_treatise_on_the_middle_way (madhyamakavatara), vasubandhu's treasury_of_manifest_knowledge (abhidharmakosha) and the tantras and mantras of the vajrayana the 42_hands_and_eyes, guhyasamaja, the kalachakra, the vajrayogini, the heruka, the chakrasamvara, the chod, the hayagriva, the hevajra, the yamantaka, the kalarupa, the manjushri_nama_samgiti, the vajrakilaya, the vajrapani, the vajra_claws_dakini, the mahakala, the tara, the white_umbrella_goddess (she_dan_do_bo_da_la), kirti_losang_trinle's grounds_and_paths_of_secret_mantra, and aku_sherab_gyatso's the_two_stages_of_the_guhyasamaja_tantra and their commentaries (shastras) by the above Arya tripitakacharya dharma_masters.

Secondary fair_use Compilation Source: The seeker_s_glossary_of_buddhism, 2nd ed., San Francisco, California: Sutra Translation Committee of the United States and Canada, 1998: http://www.budaedu.org.tw

Secondary fair_use Compilation Source: Muller, Charles, editor, digital_dictionary_of_buddhism [DDB], Toyo Gakuen University, Japan, 2007: Username is “guest”, with no password. http://buddhism-dict.net/ddb - Based in large part on the dictionary_of_chinese_buddhist_terms with Sanskrit and English Equivalents (by soothill and Hodous) Delhi, India: motilal_banarsidass, 1997.

Secondary fair_use Compilation Source: Ehrhard, Diener, Fischer, et al, The shambhala_dictionary_of_buddhism_and_zen, Boston, Massachusetts: shambhala_publications, 1991. 296 pages. ISBN 978-0-87773-520-5 http://www.Shambhala.com, http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877735204/ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20, http://www.shambhala.com/html/catalog/items/isbn/978-0-87773-520-5.cfm Secondary fair_use Compilation Source: vaidya vasant_lad, textbook_of_ayurveda, ayurvedic_press, 2002; vasant_lad, bams, masc, ayurvedic_institute_gurukula_notes, ayurvedic_institute, 1994-2006;

NOTE: Numerous corrections and enhancements have been made under shastra_tradition and ”fair_use” by an anonymous buddhist_monk redactor (Compiler) of this Online buddhist_encyclopedia Compilation)

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